Showing 36–52 of 52 results

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    Psychotherapy In Nigeria

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    Psychotherapy In Nigeria

    Abstract

    There is no exact word for psychotherapy in many Nigerian languages, numbering over 250.
    But equivalent words exist for expression such as counselling and cognitive behaviour
    therapy. The practice of these arts predated the advent of the Europeans. When modern
    psychology arrived in our shores, we naturally adopted the Euro-American models of
    psychotherapy. All that makes psychotherapy necessary can be found in our country: trauma
    due to child abuse, and neglect, abuse of human dignity, tribal wars, political conflict,
    poverty, migration and stress-provoking lifestyles, among others. The Aro village system
    developed by Lambo is an attestation to the usefulness of some of our native approaches and
    to the efficacy of social support that is inherent in the African traditional system. The
    introduction of a bilingual group psychotherapy at Aro in the early 1990 was a natural
    follow-up to this development. Group therapy is the most popular form of psychotherapy as it
    is practised in most teaching hospitals and psychiatric establishments. Meseron therapy and
    harmony restoration therapy are the two foremost indigenous approaches to psychotherapy
    in Nigeria. Meseron therapy is cognitive-behavioural in orientation while harmony
    restoration therapy is existential-phenomenological. Other therapies commonly taught and
    practised include: Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy; Cognitive Behaviour Therapy;
    Behaviour Therapy; The Psychodynamic Therapies, etc. Modern psychotherapy services are
    available in private clinics/consultations, schools, hospitals and medical centres. The
    services are offered by a wide variety of professionals ranging from clinical psychologists
    and psychiatrist, to social workers, nurses and pastors. At present, focused training in
    psychotherapy is inadequate, in spite of the efforts by the universities and the Nigerian
    Association of Clinical Psychologists. This is an important lacuna that the School of
    Psychotherapy and Health Sciences, Okija, has come to fill.

     

    Alfred Awaritefe

    Department of Mental Health, School of Medicine,

    College of Medical Sciences,

    University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Email: alfawa2000@gmail.com

     

     

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    Psychotherapy In The Nigerian Armed Forces: Promoting Resilience Among Military Personnel And Their Families

    Psychotherapy In The Nigerian Armed Forces: Promoting Resilience Among Military Personnel And Their Families

    Abstract

    The Nigerian Armed Forces involved in military operations against Boko Haram insurgency
    and terrorism in the North East, Nigeria have not developed formalized strategies aimed at
    promoting the mental health and well-being of its personnel and their families.
    Unfortunately, protracted exposure to insurgency attacks and the military counter actions
    undertaken to contain these attacks have placed great stresses on the military personnel and
    their families who have already been challenged by the frequent deployments and absences
    of their spouses from home. These stresses are often presented in the form of social and
    emotional problems amongst children at home and in school. The wives of service personnel
    on the other hand are most vulnerable to depression and other psychological consequences
    of insurgency attacks as they take on more family responsibilities due to the death or
    physical and psychological incapacitation of their husbands. The personnel on their part
    face other physical and mental health issues such as traumatic experiences, physical injuries,
    depression, aggression, etc. Despite all these issues, the Nigerian Armed Forces have not put
    in place measures to ensure the provision of psychotherapeutic treatment thereby building
    and strengthening resilience for the personnel and their families. Psychotherapeutic
    interventions which concentrate on changing the ideologies of individuals, helping them
    resolve psychological issues and rehabilitation will ensure sound mental health and wellbeing
    for the military personnel and their families. It is in this regard that the study examined
    psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces for the purpose of developing resilience
    strategies among military personnel and their families

    Author:

    Philemon A. Agashua,

    Department of Psychology,

    Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna

    philagash@gmail.com

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    Psychotherapy Training in Nigeria

    Psychotherapy Training in Nigeria

    The scarcity of properly trained psychotherapists in Nigeria, on the one hand, and the increasing incidence of emotional problems resulting from poverty and underdevelopment, child abuse and neglect, trauma resulting from different forms of crime and abuse of human dignity, insecurity problems like terrorism, insurgency, kidnapping and hijacking, increasing stress-provoking lifestyles, tribal and national wars and conflicts, westernization and globalisation, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic, different forms of cancer, and all sorts of abuse of human dignity on the other hand, call for urgent need for establishment of institutions for formal psychotherapy training in Nigeria. This paper highlights not only the above lacuna but also describes the important aspects of psychotherapy training in the Western world. It went further to describe current efforts being made in Nigeria to establish a world-class tertiary institution, the School of Psychotherapy and Health Sciences (SPHS), which takes it lead from modern psychotherapy training programmes in Austria.

     

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    Psychotherapy, Insurgency And Insecurity In The North-Eastern Region Of Nigeria

    Psychotherapy, Insurgency And Insecurity In The North-Eastern Region Of Nigeria

    Abstract

    The Boko Haram insurgency has lately introduced a terrorist dimension into the crime space in Nigeria. The trademarks of the Boko Haram are wanton destruction of lives and property with reckless abandon, through bombings, abduction and slaughtering of human beings like rams, especially in Northern Nigeria. This has created palpable fear and sense of insecurity in the polity. It is a fact that the development of any country in the world is dependent on many factors, which may fast-track or retards its growth, among which security is central. Security of lives and property plays a major role in the development of any country, as investors in any economy want to be assured of the safety of their investments. The Boko Haram attacks have led to the direct exposure of children to unimaginable violence; horrors, bombing, killings, hardship, kidnapping, diseases, and family displacement. The general objective of this study is to examine the psychotherapy, insurgency and insecurity in Nigeria. This study employs qualitative research method in which analytic approach was used to address the research questions raised. The phenomenon of insurgency in Nigeria which subsequently led to the mass population displacement in the country is no doubt unconnected to the fragile nature of state and state institutions. Theoretically, it is proven in this paper that fragile nature of Nigerian state which failed to carry out its constitutional responsibilities of providing security and welfare to citizens was largely responsible for insurgency. Special rehabilitation and trauma centres should be established, especially for women and children who have had horrible experiences during the insurgency period. Traumaexposed individuals should be given special psychological debriefing treatment to prevent and contain possible post-traumatic stress and disorder (PSTD).Porous border controls should be intensified with intelligence gathering technologies in order to halt weapons and track illegal border movements and obscured border to halt weapons and track illegal border movements and obscured border crossings through collaborative efforts of regional border security personnel.

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    Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Internally Displaced Nigerian Adolescents

    Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Internally Displaced Nigerian Adolescents

    Abstract

    This study investigated the impact of internal displacement on Post Truamatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adolescents, with a view to reducing the incidence of PTSD among victims. 283 participants of both male and female adolescents were used for the study. Data were collected by the aid of PTSD K-scale. In-depth interview as well as focused group discussion was also adopted. Result showed a significant 3- way interaction between internal displacement, age and gender in trauma symptomatology (F (1,275) =3.87, P=.05); internally displaced adolescents showed higher mean than non-displaced ones, internally displaced female adolescents exhibited more trauma than the internally displaced males; older displaced female adolescents had the highest mean trauma symptomatology of 31.35, while older displaced male adolescents had the lowest trauma symptomatology score of 27.93. Recommendation was given based on the findings.

     

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    Religiosity, And Social Mal-Adjustment As Correlates Of Assertiveness Competence Among Undergraduates

    Religiosity, And Social Mal-Adjustment As Correlates Of Assertiveness Competence Among Undergraduates

    Abstract

    Most Nigerian students have the problem of standing up for their right especially in a social
    situation. This affects their ability to dialogue, press, influence, and impose their opinion to
    the acceptance of others. Unassertiveness may sometimes predict mal-adaptive behaviour
    which is usually seen in people with low self-esteem and this may significantly affect one’s
    religiosity. As a result and in consideration of the importance of religious life of young
    people and its relationship with social mal-adjustment, this study explored religiosity and
    social mal-adjustment as correlates of assertiveness competence among undergraduate. 432
    student-participants comprising of 191 males and 242 females were used for the respondents
    of the study with the participants’ age ranging from 17 to 25 years on a mean age of 22.60
    years and standard deviation of 2.12. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study
    and data was collected with the aid of assertiveness competence scale from Dating and
    assertiveness questionnaire (DAQ) by Levenson and Gottman (1978), religious affiliation
    scale by Omoluabi (1995)and social mal-adjustment scale by social mal-adjustment scale
    (SMS) by Wiggins (1966).The result of the analysis confirmed that religiosity and maladjustment
    correlated positively and negatively respectively; whereas religiosity and maladjustment
    correlated negatively among Nigeria students. It is recommended that all agents
    of socialization notably; the family, the school and church should emphasize more on the
    usefulness of deepening assertiveness training in secondary schools so as to improve on their
    resolve to get better when they get over to the university.

    Authors: Ike, P.R.1; Etodike, C.E2; & Edwards, L.N

    1Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka,  Anambra State

    E-mail: nelsonetodike@gmail.com,

     

    2Department of Psychology, Federal University Ndufu-Alaike Ikwo, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State

    E-mail: preciousike45@gmail.com, and

     

    3Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, PMB 5025, Awka Anambra State

    E-mail: ndidiedwards@gmail.com,

     

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    Response of Substance Use Patients To Insight Oriented Therapy At Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Aro, Abeokuta

    Response of Substance Use Patients To Insight Oriented Therapy At Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Aro, Abeokuta

    Abstract

    Psychotherapy for mental health treatment can be a very effective means for helping
    individuals to overcome behavioral and mental health issues that have caused them distress.
    Insight-oriented psychotherapy is an approach to mental health counseling with a focus on
    helping clients to understand their own inner workings and motivations. With this therapeutic
    techniques, the therapist encourages clients to examine their past relationships and the ways
    in which these dynamics have shaped their present The primary goals of treatment are to
    enhance and sustain patient motivation for change, establish and maintain abstinence from
    all psychoactive drugs, and foster development of (nonchemical) coping and problem solving
    skills to prevent and ultimately eliminate impulses to “self-medicate” with psychoactive
    drugs. The approach has shown to work well with issues such as substance abuse. This paper
    present the effectiveness of Insight Oriented Therapy in the management of substance use.
    Three substance use patient with hallucination, delusion and aimless wandering as
    presenting complain were exposed to Insight Oriented Therapy. This psychotherapeutic
    technique was employed after the patients exposure to chemotherapy. Patients responded
    positively after four sessions of two hours each for a period of two weeks. Authors
    recommend Insight Oriented Therapy as psychotherapy of option with management of
    substance use patient.

     

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    Speech and Language Therapy Publications: Are They Adequate?

    Speech and Language Therapy Publications: Are They Adequate?

    Abstract

    Scientific publications in the area of speech and language therapy are meant to communicate
    to the scientific and practice community and policy-makers new developments (in theories,
    research and practice). Where there is a dearth of publication, teaching, research, and policy
    development in the field of study suffer. The aim of this paper is to find out whether
    publications in the area of speech and language therapy are adequate. A computer-aided
    electronic search was made using Ebscohost database. Scientific articles published within
    2011 and 2016 in the area of speech and language therapy were sought in three
    representative developed as well as three developing countries. Results show that
    publications in the area of speech and language therapy are not adequate. It is therefore
    recommended that speech and language therapists should endeavour to not only practice but
    also spare time for publications of their experiences for proper teaching, research and policy
    making.

    Author: Bridget Ngozi Madu

    Department of English, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University,

    Igbariam Campus, Nigeria

    Email: madubridget@gmail.com

     

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    Speech and Language Therapy Techniques Reported from Developing and Developed Countries

    Speech and Language Therapy Techniques Reported from Developing and Developed Countries

     

    Abstract
    Speech and language therapy publications are meant to communicate to the scientific and
    practice community as well as policy-makers new developments (in theories, research and
    practice). The aim of this paper is to find out the speech and language therapy techniques
    used in the developed and developing worlds. The information will throw light on the kinds of
    techniques used and advice on future development in the area. A computer-aided electronic
    search was made using Ebscohost database. Scientific articles published within 2011 and
    2016 in the area of speech and language therapy were sought in three representative
    developed as well as three developing countries. Results show that from the publications
    from the developing countries, it is apparent that those dealing with the speech and language
    problems are more occupied with issues of assessment than with therapy. In the developed
    countries, they are concerned with therapy techniques that will suit their present realities
    (and not just assessment alone). It is therefore recommended that those dealing with speech
    and language problems in the developing countries should be properly trained in the art of
    speech-language therapy.

     

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    The Application of Psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces

    The Application of Psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces

    Abstract

    The military personnel whose duty is to undertake operational duties are often exposed to trauma and stress; and some develop psychological distress as a result. The burden of mental health distress related to military occupational life is substantial as some military personnel and families flourish while others are not able to cope. Overtime, deployed military personnel and families become psychologically dysfunctional as a result of trauma and acute stress syndrome which result to post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and emotional burn-out. Although, little attempt has been made to assess and meet the mental health needs of the military community holistically. This negligence is costly considering that the psychological health of the military family has been found to be directly related to the readiness, well-being and retention of service members. More so, the impact of negative attachment reactions on the cognitive development of children as a result of separations related to military deployment and postings have been observed. But at the moment, the government and NGO’s have focused mainly on the physical welfare needs of the wounded military personnel only, while the mental wellbeing of their families who are victims of counter-insurgency operations have been overlooked. The study therefore examined the application of psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces. The researchers also discussed common psychotherapeutic techniques relevant to the treatment of military personnel and families with the need to adopt a preventive approach to mental health promotion.

    Authors: Philemon A. Agashua, Jonathan I. Ugese, Funke T. Olofin

    Department of Psychology Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna

    Email: philagash@gmail.com Mobile number: +23408057972305

     

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    The Challenges and Compromises of Culture-Centered Therapy: Nigerian Evidence

    The Challenges and Compromises of Culture-Centered Therapy: Nigerian Evidence

    Abstract

    Ideally therapeutic processes ought to be context-bound; therefore culture plays vital role in setting the status quo for the interaction between the therapist and the client. It is against this background that this paper examines the challenges and compromises of culture-centered therapy in Africa (Nigeria), particularly as the scheme of work and curriculum for teaching psychology (and all other related areas of study), seems to omit cultural orientation to some extent. Correspondingly, National Universities Commission (NUC) benchmark is used as unit of analysis to portray the seemingly lack of culture-centered therapy in higher education in Nigeria. Supportively, narratives from focus group discussion with students are presented to intensify the lack of inclusion of culture-centered curriculum. As a result, the paper advocates for methodological and clinical integration of cultural perspective (indigenous knowledge system) into higher education’s teaching of psychology otherwise the noble idea of culture-centered therapy would continue to be an illusion. Hence, the African therapist to say the least would be irrelevant in his/her cultural milieu and to the clients who may urgently need culture-bound therapy as means of maintaining mental health and sustainable development.

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    The Efficacy of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in the Management of Stress in Military Personnel

    The Efficacy of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in the Management of Stress in Military Personnel

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    This study examines the efficacy (effectiveness) of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy
    (REBT) in the management of stress in military personnel. Forty Five (45) out of Sixty (60)
    military personnel drawn from Army, Navy, and Air Force who obtained high scores on SCL-
    90 and MSI were randomly placed into experimental, placebo, and control groups consisting
    of 15 participants each. The pretreatment scores of the three groups were taken. The
    experimental group received 10 REBT sessions, the placebo group had 10 sessions but only
    discussed professionalization in the Nigerian military. The control group received no
    treatment. The results showed that pos-treatment scores of the experimental group were
    lower than their pretreatment scores as that of the placebo and control groups. Using
    ANOVA to determine the significant difference in the three groups, it was found that the
    experimental group showed significant differences in all 11 measures. The results were
    discussed in terms of the efficacy of REBT in the management of stress in military personnel.

    Author: Damian D. Osa-Afiana

    Department of Psychology

    Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna

     

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    The Place Of Listening In Psychotherapy Text Of Keynote Speech

    The Place Of Listening In Psychotherapy Text Of Keynote Speech

    Abstract

    The article conceptualized listening, giving the various types of listening as well as
    Listening Styles. The many adversaries to listening or listening bugs. Then the methods of
    debugging oneself are presented. Finally how to debug oneself is presented for effective
    Psychotherapy.

     

    Author:

    Josiah A. Shindi

    Department of Psychology,

    Benue State University, Nigeria

     

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    The Use Of African Proverbs To Motivate Clients In Meseron Therapy

    The Use Of African Proverbs To Motivate Clients In Meseron Therapy

    Abstract

    African proverbs use metaphors for practical living and for dissemination of wisdom
    intricately woven in conversations to accomplish acts which cannot be realized by ordinary
    words. Believed as handed down from the ancestors African proverbs are highly esteemed.
    Meseron therapy draws on African belief in the potency of the spoken words, affirming that
    people have psychological problems because of faulty speaking. That what we say or what is
    said about us affects our thought and behaviour. To correct the psychopathology, Meseron
    theorizes “saying it right” (rejecting wrong unwholesome words) taking covert actions at the
    level of thought and overt actions in form of words and deeds. To motivate clients Meseron
    therapists can incorporate some salient attributes of African proverbs such as their
    embedded expression of conventional truth which clients easily identify with without doubt
    when used by therapists, their brevity and easy to remember and understand nature which
    can influence clients perceptive capacity, appeal to their reasoning, and make them see self
    defeatist words as abnormal and pathological. Qualities such as availability, strong tool of
    persuasion, having a base of practical experience, common sense, intellectual richness worth
    listening to and obeying, make African proverbs a veritable tool in Meseron approach.

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    The Usefulness Of The Core Qualities Of A Client-Centered Psychotherapist To African Clients

    The Usefulness Of The Core Qualities Of A Client-Centered Psychotherapist To African Clients

    Abstract

    Knowing that the client-centered Psychotherapy was developed by Carl Rogers in the United States of America in the 1940s and 1950s, and is widely practiced in Europe and America, the usefulness of this form of therapy to the African clients is yet to be documented. Therefore, this is an inquiry into the usefulness of the core qualities of a client-centered psychotherapist for an African client. The three core qualities are: genuineness, unconditional positive regard and empathy. The authors reviewed literature on the core qualities, and based on their long-time psychotherapeutic experience and practice with black African clients, make assertions on the usefulness of the core qualities. The authors assert that the core qualities are very useful to the majority of the black African clients.  They spore the clients to be genuine to themselves, unconditionally prizing of themselves, and be disposed to navigate deeper into sensitive areas of their life experiences, for insight into the source or true cause of their distress, therefore leading to independent decision-making about the best life course for them to chat. The practice of client-centered psychotherapy is therefore recommended for black African clients.

     

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    Trajectory of Psychotherapy In Africa

    Trajectory of Psychotherapy In Africa

    Abstract

    This paper examines trajectory of psychotherapy in Africa. It touches on the meaning of psychotherapy, types, as well as goals and relevance of psychotherapy. The key factors is with greater emphasis in psychotherapy where in Africa certain set-backs and challenges have been heavily represented with terrorism leading to posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) from kidnapping down to Boko-Harram and Fulani herdsmen violence that undermine security and national development. Sequel to this, economic recession and anxiety of the mass is another cancerous triggered to corruption which clinicians identify today as a major set-back in African socioeconomic and political development. Other issues facing the clinicians and students of psychotherapy with the service users are lack of keeping clinical records for data purposes, problems of referrals, poor accessibility to clinical resources and team relationships. The objective of this paper is to discuss in-depths these African issues and a way of advancing psychotherapy in Africa to a lofty heights. Proffering solutions could be identify through extensive training, entrepreneurship model, and also using continuation of professional development (CPD) to generate learning from the existing challenges in Africa through conferences, seminars and workshops. Unfortunately some clinicians in the society lack the zeal of pursuing CPD model of knowledge and experience as they find it difficult not only to engage with others but to come together and work as a team. Training is always a major reflection in working relationship in group practice to make relevance the dynamism required of psychotherapy. Importantly, using working groups formula (WDEP) that is focused in African way on client centred approach will serve as another panacea aimed at understanding clients (patients) in the group processes, while taken cognisance people’s real life situations, to guard against some risks that may jeopardize group in psychotherapy. It is therefore recommended that those practising psychotherapy in African setting should bear in mind the relevance of clinical practice as evidence based and good quality of care in the art of psychotherapy.

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    Trauma Counseling For Adolescent Victims Of Insurgency And Insecurity In Southern Kaduna

    Trauma Counseling For Adolescent Victims Of Insurgency And Insecurity In Southern Kaduna

    Abstract

    The spate of insurgency and insecurity in southern Kaduna is alarming and imposing a serious trauma on the populace especially on the adolescents.  This is a topical issue that has implication for counselling and psychotherapy. The study therefore investigated the instigators of trauma; the level of trauma among the adolescents and its effect on their academics. It also tried to ameliorate the effect of the trauma using the ABC model of the Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with the aim to gain behaviour change for the activating events of the trauma among the adolescents. A cross-section survey research design was adopted for the study with a sample of 148 adolescents from Kajuru LGA. Three research questions guided the study. A 25 item research questionnaire constructed by the researchers was employed to collect data for the survey study. The questionnaire consisted of four sections, two sections rated on the modified 4 point Likert scale. The data obtained from the respondents were analyzed with frequency counts and percentages. The Findings indicated the major trauma instigators, high level of trauma at 77.7% among the adolescents and the effect has a high percentage of more than 70%. Cognitive Behavioural therapy was delineated to challenge their irrational thoughts and fears. Based on the findings, we recommended that more trained counsellor should be employed in the area to work on the adolescents towards their emotional development.

     

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