Showing 1–35 of 64 results

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    Adolescents Sexual Activities and Pornography

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    Adolescents Sexual Activities and Pornography

    Abstract

    This paper explores the relationship between pornography and adolescents sexual activities. Adolescents due to lack of emotional quotient are usually predisposed to varieties of sexual disorder by watching pornography. This has health related implications for them, their parents and the society, hence the need for scientific enquiry targeted at its control.

     

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    Alleviating Violence, Traumatic Experience And Illicit Drugs Use Using Psychotherapeutic Model: A Case Study Of Youth In Awka Urban

    Alleviating Violence, Traumatic Experience And Illicit Drugs Use Using Psychotherapeutic Model: A Case Study Of Youth In Awka Urban

    Abstract

    The study examined alleviating violence, traumatic experience and illicit drugs use using psychotherapeutic model: a case study of youth in Awka urban. A total number of two hundred and forty-one (241) youth in Awka urban; served as participant for the study. The study utilized non-probability (convenient sampling technique). Their age ranged from 18-32 years and their mean age was 23.20 with standard deviation of 4.07. Substance Craving Scale developed by Mazza (2004), Dating Violence Questionnaire-Reverse (DVQ-R) by Rodríguez-Franco et al., (2010) and Impact of Event Scale by Horowitz, Wilner and Ilvarez (1979) were employed for data generation. The study adopted correlational design and Pearson Product Moment Correction Coefficient as appropriate statistics for analyses of the data. Two hypotheses were tested. Thus, hypothesis one which states that violence will significantly correlate with illicit drug among youth in Awka Urban were partly accepted, because sexual and physical violence correlate with illicit drugs, while detachment, humiliation and coercion violence did not correlate with illicit drugs. Hypothesis two which states that trauma will significantly correlate with illicit drug among youth in Awka Urban was accepted. Based on the findings, study concludes by detailing recommendations and psychotherapeutic intervention model for the study.

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    Assertiveness Training: Academic Performance And Self Esteem Among College Students In Selected Rural Areas

    Assertiveness Training: Academic Performance And Self Esteem Among College Students In Selected Rural Areas

    Abstract

    Unassertiveness is a mal-adaptive behaviour which is usually seen in people with low selfesteem.
    It affects the ability of individuals to express their opinions, interests and needs
    openly, directly and honestly in matters that concern them, including standing up for their
    rights without violating the rights of others. It may also affect academic performance. Based
    on the above, this study examined assertiveness training and its effects on self-esteem and
    academic performance among S.S.3 students in selected secondary schools in rural areas of
    Anambra State. 108 student-participants comprising of 39 males and 69 females were
    subjects for the study. The participants’ age ranged from 15 to 19 years with a mean age of
    16.24 years and standard deviation of 1.10. Two hypotheses were formulated and data was
    collected with the aid of 25-item self-esteem questionnaire by Hudson (1982) and test scores.
    The participants were divided into two groups; the experimental group and the control
    group. After statistical analysis of the data, findings revealed that assertiveness training
    enhanced the self-esteem score of the experimental group whereas no significant changes
    were observed in that of the control group. Also, there were significant changes in the
    academic performance between the two groups. It is therefore recommended that government
    should through the intervention of the education board enhance the current curriculum to
    include practical assertiveness training among all the SS class students in order to improve
    on their self-esteem which has a positive implication for improved academic performance.

    Etodike, C.E1; Ike, P.R.2 & Chukwura, E.N.3

    1Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka,  Anambra State

    E-mail: nelsonetodike@gmail.com,,

     

    2Department of Psychology, Federal University Ndufu-Alaike Ikwo, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State

    E-mail: preciousike45@gmail.com, and

     

    3 Department of Education Psychology, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State

    E-mail: chukwura30@yahoo.com

     

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    Challenges Facing Psychotherapists In Africa In The Hit Of The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) Global Pandemic

    Challenges Facing Psychotherapists In Africa In The Hit Of The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) Global Pandemic

    Abstract

    To fully understand the challenges facing psychotherapists in Africa in the hit of the
    Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic, the paper visited/reflected the
    origin and transmission of the virus, the global epidemiology, and the resultant adoption
    of international and national lockdown limiting heavily movements of people and goods
    to prevent further spread of the virus. The lockdown, however, has seriously affected the
    interpersonal relationships and freedom of gathering. It is also expected that it will have
    adverse mental and psychological effects leading to behavioural, emotional, social/family
    problems. Increased incidence of stress reactivity and anxiety, reality denial, depression,
    isolation, loneliness and lack of social support, undesirable marital adjustment and
    irritability, trauma, self-injurious behaviours like suicidal ideation and drug addiction,
    unhealthy eating behaviours and resultant increase in weight, and Obsessive Compulsive
    Disorder, increased neuropsychological symptoms, are some of the expected adverse
    effects of the lockdown. The ability to adequately address all these anticipated problems
    pose a big challenge to the few qualified psychotherapists in Africa. There are also very
    few institutions for the training of psychotherapist in Africa south of Sahara. The speed
    with which the virus is spreading also calls for short-term acquisition of hands-on
    psychotherapeutic skills. African governments are therefore called upon to address the
    above-mentioned shortage as a matter of urgency. The few psychotherapists available in
    Africa are also called upon to look into the above psychologically unhealthy situation
    from the point of view of crisis intervention.

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    Challenges Of African Traditional Healing System: Implication For The Development Of Indigenous Psychotherapy

    Challenges Of African Traditional Healing System: Implication For The Development Of Indigenous Psychotherapy

    Abstract

    Traditional medicine is the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories,
    beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures that are used to maintain health, as
    well as to prevent, diagnose, improve or treat physical and mental illnesses. This paper
    explores the challenges of African traditional healing system and the implications for the
    development of indigenous psychotherapy. Previous studies show that about 80% of the
    population in Asian, African and some developed countries depend on traditional medicine
    for primary health care. Rate of acceptability, use, confidence in and efficacy of traditional
    healing system is increasing in Nigeria. Some indigenous traditional healing methods include
    herbalism, therapeutic dieting, and hydrotherapy and spirituality (divination). Notable
    challenges include international diversity, national policy and regulation, perceived safety,
    effectiveness and quality, knowledge and sustainability, patient safety and use. This study
    recommends that more research be carried out on African traditional healing, that the
    religious and metaphysical elements be separated from the physical matter, commitment of
    more resources to test and promote the use of safe and efficacious traditional medicines,
    practicing traditional healers should adhere to standardized norms and qualifications. There
    is need for speedy passing of the traditional health practitioners’ bill.

     

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    Charging/Billing In Psychotherapy In Nigeria

    Charging/Billing In Psychotherapy In Nigeria

    Abstract

    Unlike medical, legal, building and other professionals where billing has over the years been
    settled and practitioners and experts simply charge their clients based on laid down
    traditions, billing or charging in Psychotherapy is still seemingly a controversial issue
    among practicing clinical psychologists and psychotherapists in Nigeria. Presently billing is
    influenced by the nature of clients’ presentations or psychopathology, its duration or
    severity, the psychological tests to be involved, involvement of other health professional and
    the literacy level of the clients. Other considerations include, the location of the
    clinic/hospital, the nature of available facilities and equipment, experience, qualification and
    popularity of the clinician or psychotherapist, and relationship between the clinician and
    clients and mode of referrals. There ought to be a Nigerian acceptable uniform
    billing/charge system among Nigerian Psychotherapists and clinical Psychologists.

     

    Author: Nkwam C. Uwaoma

    Department of Psychology,

    Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.

    Email: nkwams@yahoo.com

     

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    Comparison Between Cognitive Behaviour, Rational Emotive Behaviour And Meseron Therapies

    Comparison Between Cognitive Behaviour, Rational Emotive Behaviour And Meseron Therapies

    Abstract

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy [REBT], Cognitive Behaviour Therapy [CBT] and
    Meseron Therapy are three uniquely and very effective cognitive therapies used in clinical
    psychology practice. It is essential to clearly spell out the difference in the therapies as some
    psychologists in the past have experienced difficulty differentiating them. Rational Emotive
    Behaviour Therapy [REBT] was developed by Albert Ellis [1962] based on the rationale that
    irrational thinking is the root cause of psychological disturbances. Cognitive behaviour
    therapy [CBT] by Aaron Beck [1976], posits that how individuals view situations may result
    in psychological disturbances while Meseron Therapy by Alfred Awaritefe [1995] postulates
    that psychological disturbances arise as a result of faulty speaking as seen in the distortion of
    our appraisal mechanism, acquiescing to negativity and incongruence of striving and goals.
    This paper attempts to further explain each therapy in detail.

     

     

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    Demographic Influence on the Perception of E-Psychotherapy among Clinical Psychologists in South-East Nigeria

    Demographic Influence on the Perception of E-Psychotherapy among Clinical Psychologists in South-East Nigeria

    Abstract

    This study examined the influences of age, gender and years of experience on the perception
    of e-psychotherapy among clinical psychologists within South Eastern Nigeria. 51 practicing
    clinical psychologists (26 males and 25 females) within the age range of 28 to 56 years (M =
    42.37, SD= 5.56) were used for the study. An e-psychotherapy scale was employed to elicit
    data for the study. The survey research design, independent sample t-test and Analysis of
    Variance were used for data collations and analysis. The findings revealed that South-East
    clinical psychologists significantly have a positive perception of e-psychotherapy and gender
    and years of practice have significant influence on e-Psychotherapy. However, age influence
    on e-psychotherapy did not reach a statistical significance. It is, therefore, recommended
    that clinical psychologists in Nigeria would perform more effectively using e-psychotherapy.

     

    Authors:

    Nkwam C. Uwaoma

    nkwams@yahoo.com

    Lois Chioma Uhiara

    uhokalois@yahoo.com

    Richards E. Ebeh

    richebeh@gmail.com

    Department of Psychology, Imo State University, Owerri

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    Diagnosis And Treatment Of Mental Illness By Vhavenda Traditional Healers In Vhembe District, South Africa

    Diagnosis And Treatment Of Mental Illness By Vhavenda Traditional Healers In Vhembe District, South Africa

    Abstract

    In rural African communities, traditional healers hold an esteemed and powerful position
    in the diagnosis and treatment of various illnesses. They assume a significant role in
    addressing the mental health care needs of individuals by offering cultural appropriate
    treatment and they are easily accessible. This was a qualitative study, and specifically,
    the case study method was utilised. Ten traditional healers were chosen through
    purposive and snowball sampling to participate in the study. Data was collected through
    semi-structured interviews and analysed using the thematic analysis method. The findings
    revealed that several procedures (like throwing of bones and direct observation of
    patient’s behaviours) are used to diagnose mental illness. The findings also revealed that
    mental illness can be treated through the use of traditional remedies and practices (like
    rituals). From the findings of the study, it can be suggested that both traditional medical
    interventions and some culturally relevant psychological procedures are used to treat
    mental illness. Increased cooperation between western oriented psychotherapists and
    African traditional healers is therefore highly recommended.


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    Effect of Behaviour Intervention on Adolescents’ Sexual Risk-Behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Effect of Behaviour Intervention on Adolescents’ Sexual Risk-Behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Abstract

    The study examined the effect of Behaviour Intervention on adolescents’ sexual risk-behaviour. 120  adolescents comprising ( males 56, mean age = 19 years ) and  (females 64, mean age= 18.6 years)  were  selected  purposely  from  a population of  1168 SS11 students in the  eight public schools  in Awka urban using  a survey study . The participants   that had high mean score of sexual risk – behaviour, in the survey study, from a sexual risk-behaviour test (males’ mean score =47, females’ mean score = 42) were selected for intervention training.  The test has a validity of .94 and a reliability of .82. The subjects were randomly assigned into the three treatment groups, namely: Assertive group, self control group and control group, with 40 adolescents in each group. A random group design with three independent variables and a Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used for the study. The result of the data analysis showed that participants’ scores on the test for those that participated in intervention training in assertive and self-control groups differed    significantly from those participants in the control group (P =.03).However, the Scheffe pair-wise comparison test indicates that those in assertive training group had greater change (P=.017).The study concludes that Behaviour Intervention (assertive training and self-control training) had significant effect on adolescents’ sexual behaviour .

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    Effect Of Emotional Intelligence Training On Couples’ Attitude To Marital Stress

    Effect Of Emotional Intelligence Training On Couples’ Attitude To Marital Stress

    Abstract

    This study investigated the effect of Emotional Intelligence on the attitude of couples to marital stress. The general objective of the study is the presentation of Emotional Intelligence as a viable tool in tackling not only marital but all forms of stress. The study adopted an experimental design using purposive and random sampling methods. Pair of thirty (30) married couples totalling sixty (60) subjects participated in the study. The participants were placed into experimental and control groups. Gender and academic qualification were the independent variables of the study. The research instrument, a self-developed and validated Marital Stress Attitude Inventory (MSAI) was administered and couples’ scores determined their assigned group. It was administered on the experimental and control groups before and after the Emotional Intelligence Training. Six hypotheses were formulated and tested. The hypotheses were analysed using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA). The post-test result of data revealed that there was a significant difference in the attitude of Couples in the Experimental group due to Emotional Intelligence Training, irrespective of gender and academic qualification, as against those of the control group who did not record any significant difference in their attitude to marital stress. The highest mean attitude score recorded by the group that was exposed to Emotional Intelligence Training implied that the attitude of Couples to marital stress can be changed with Emotional Intelligence Training.

     

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    Effect Of Laughter On The Psychological Well-Being Of Hospitalized Patients

    Effect Of Laughter On The Psychological Well-Being Of Hospitalized Patients

    Abstract

    The quality of life of hospitalized patients is usually affected by a lot of psychological experiences such as pain, distress, anxiety, and depression, which reduce their quality of life. Laughing therapy in the media has grown and many researchers have conducted a variety of studies on laughing. The main aim of this research is to know the effect of laughter on psychological well-being of hospitalized patients. The participants used for this research were hospitalized patients from both general and private hospital in Anambra State. 15 participants were sampled using convenient sampling method via personal permission. A 20-item modified version of the ryff (1972) psychological well-being scale with Cronbach alpha of .96 and content validity.77 and four 3-minute comedy skits were used. Within-group design was adopted for this research. It was observed that the treatment effect was not statistically significant, in other words, hospitalized patients did not improve significantly on their psychological well-being after watching the four 3-minutes comedy skits. Nevertheless we recommend that laughter therapy should be adopted as part of treatment given to hospitalized patients.

     

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    Effect Of Logotherapy On Academic Stress Of Senior Secondary School Students

    Effect Of Logotherapy On Academic Stress Of Senior Secondary School Students

    Abstract

    This study examined the effect of Logotherapy on the academic stress of Senior Secondary School students. An experimental design using purposive and random sampling methods were used to conduct the study. The sample population consists of one hundred and twenty (120) Senior Secondary School students of OCAC College, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria. The research instrument; a self-developed and validated inventory (Academic Stress Inventory-ASI) was administered and students’ scores determined their assigned group before and after the therapy. The data for the study were analysed using t-test and one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The result of the data analysis revealed that Logotherapy was effective in reducing the academic stress of Senior Secondary School students without the interference of gender, religion and course of study. Based on the findings, it is evident that psychotherapeutic services in Schools are beneficial.

     

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    English Language Students And Their Coping Styles During Lockdown As A Result Of The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) Global Pandemic

    English Language Students And Their Coping Styles During Lockdown As A Result Of The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) Global Pandemic

    Abstract

    The author examined the effective and ineffective coping mechanisms of English language undergraduate students during the total lockdown in Nigeria as a result of the Corona Virus (COVID-19) global pandemic. The participants in the study were twenty undergraduate students of English language in a state university. The students were interviewed on telephone on their coping styles during lockdown as a result of the
    COVID-19 global pandemic. Their responses were recorded on the phone, transcribed, and thematically analysed using qualitative methods. Results show that they used such effective coping mechanisms as having a positive attitude towards the lockdown, and therefore used the opportunity for reading novels, writing poems, playing and dancing music at home, and painting/drawing. Other effective coping activities reported were: Having quiet moments for meditation and prayers, home physical exercises and aerobic, sleeping/resting, watching television and movies, gardening/farming, family bonding/reunion, and expected/desired pregnancy. Some of them also reported some ineffective ways of coping, such as denial of reality of COVID-19, feeling anxious, boredom/loneliness, weight gained, substance abuse/use, domestic violence, unwanted pregnancy, longing for intimate sexual partner, being angry with the governments
    because of food-shortage/starvation, and obsessive-compulsive behaviour. The author concludes that the effective coping mechanisms would enhance their proficiency in English language, and should be encouraged; while the ineffective ways of coping would definitely be detrimental to their future professions and life in general, and should be discouraged.

     

     

     

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    Fantasy Behavior Scale: The Psychometric Properties

    Fantasy Behavior Scale: The Psychometric Properties

    Abstract

    The development of a 24-item self-report scale for measuring fantasy behavior in populations
    is described, the concept was elucidated, theories and the previous studies that are
    applicable to fantasy behavior were applied and reviewed. The study also established the
    psychometric qualities and properties of the Fantasy Behavior Scale (FBS). Series of
    analyses was used to reduce the item pool from an initial 30 items to 24 items. The result of
    the factor loading for fantasy scale shows that the items loaded into seven (7) components,
    but most of the items loaded highest on five (5) factors or components which were named as
    follows: component one (fantasy behavior),loaded 17 items (8.56); component two (control
    over fantasy behavior), loaded 3 items (2.134); component three (attitude towards fantasy
    behavior), loaded 1 item (1.71); component four (loss of touch with reality), loaded 2 items
    (1.48) and component five (defense mechanism), loaded 1 item (1.44). The resulting (FBS) is
    a 24–item scale that showed high internal consistency (α = .910) and a subsequent
    reliability of (α = .881). It also showed external validity of r = .766 (2-tailed) when
    correlated with fantasy proneness scale.

    Author: Paschal Kandilichukwu Officha

    School of Psychotherapy and Health Sciences, Okija Campus

    offichapaschal@yahoo.com

     

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    Gender Differences In Attitude To The Skin Disease Atopic Dermatitis Among Adolescents: The Role Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Gender Differences In Attitude To The Skin Disease Atopic Dermatitis Among Adolescents: The Role Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Abstract

    This paper examines gender differences in attitude to the skin disease-atopic dermatitis among adolescents: The role of Cognitive- Behavioural Therapy. 83 adolescents aged between 13 and 15 and diagnosed with moderate (43) to grave (40) atopic dermatitis took part in the study. The groups were divided according to gender; group 1 was made up of 38 adolescent boys, and group 2 was made up of 45 adolescent girls. The control group included 80 adolescents (40 girls and 40 boys) matched for age. The psychodiagnostic complex used in the study were: Method for establishing the disease attitude type (DAT) and Male and Female Painting projective test. Data were analyzed using correlation and student’s t-test. The comparison of data yielded results that indicate gender-specific types of attitude to the disease among adolescents diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. A statistically significant difference between the groups was found in the anosognosic disease attitude type that is more typical of adolescent boys. This disease attitude type is characterized by active rejection of thoughts about the disease and its consequences which is explained by boy’s bravado, by their wish to demonstrate invulnerability and confidence, which is in effect an attempt to compensate for low self-appraisal.

     

     

     

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    Genuineness In Client Centered Psychotherapy: It’s Relevance To The Nigerian Society During The Convid-19 Global Pandemic

    Genuineness In Client Centered Psychotherapy: It’s Relevance To The Nigerian Society During The Convid-19 Global Pandemic

    Abstract

    In this paper, the concept of genuineness, as expressed by Carl Rogers in ClientCentered Psychotherapy, is the platform on which efforts of some Nigerian citizens and governments to curb the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) is discussed. The genuineness in seeing COVID-19 as real, the political goodwill, the sincerity in
    administering the COVID-19 funds, in carrying out the internationally mapped out measures to contain the virus, and in the distribution of the palliatives to cushion the adverse effects of the lockdown, are questioned. A call for attitudinal change on the part of the concerned citizenry and the governments are therefore made.

     

     

     

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    Harmony Restoration Therapy: Theory And Practice

    Harmony Restoration Therapy: Theory And Practice

    Abstract

    One cardinal aim of all Psychotherapies is the alleviation of people’s physical and mental
    illness using psychological principles. In Nigeria and other African countries, there have
    cravings for the indigenization of psychotherapy in order to make it relevant to Africans.
    Harmony Restoration Therapy developed by Ebigbo (1995) is one of the outcomes of such
    yearnings for Africa-culture oriented therapy. This therapy treats abnormal behaviour, by
    restoring the equilibrium in human life and living using holistic as well as eclectic
    approaches. The theory of Harmony Restoration Therapy perceives man as a component of
    three entities, namely: Endo, Meso and Exo cosmos. These three entities are inseparable and
    maintain a harmonious relationship. An abnormal person distinguished from a normal
    person when the three entities are not working, interwoven as a whole. Sanity, therefore, is
    restored when the discrepancy among the three domains is resolved and harmonious
    relationship maintained

    Peter O. Ebigbo

    Department of Psychological Medicine,

    University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

    Email: pebigbo@yahoo.com

     

     

     

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    Importance of Psychotherapy Towards Promotion of Mental Wellness in Africa

    Importance of Psychotherapy Towards Promotion of Mental Wellness in Africa

    Abstract

    The issue of mental health affects everyone, particularly wellness of life such as emotional stability and stress free among others. Contextually, most African countries are beleaguered by poverty, wars, terrorism, insecurity and superstition leading to emotional distress, trauma, malnutrition, substance abuse, and other psychological problems. Therefore, provision of psychotherapy and its importance cannot be overemphasized, as it is essential for promoting mental wellness in the face of accumulated tension, which if not taken care of would lead to many illnesses. Example at hand is the aftermath of the just concluded political election in Nigeria, which have left many vulnerable that include loss of loved ones amidst myriad of other psychological problems. Accordingly, this paper wishes to survey the numerous contributions psychotherapy would make towards the development of mental wellness in African, using Nigeria as a case study, particularly in the form of providing advocacy for relaxation and stress management. Hence, data collected from 10 counsellors-in-training would be used as evidence-base narratives to support integration of psycho-therapeutic intervention to daily experiences of life aimed at achieving greater wellness of life.

     

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    Integration Of Spirituality Into Psychotherapy – A Potential Model For Nigeria

    Integration Of Spirituality Into Psychotherapy – A Potential Model For Nigeria

    Abstract

    Although Sigmund Freud, reputed to be the father of psychoanalysis was not favourably disposed to religion, recent developments indicate that interest in religion and mental health and psychotherapy has grown. Most clients that come to psychotherapy are likely to have a religious orientation and will benefit from integrating spirituality into therapy. Psychotherapists need to learn the techniques and skills of how this integration can best be achieved especially in Nigeria where religion is a very sensitive issue.

     

     

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    International Journal for Psychotherapy in Africa – 2018 (Volume 3)

    International Journal for Psychotherapy in Africa – 2018 (Volume 3)

    This Third Edition of the International Journal of Psychotherapy in Africa contains well researched and articulated empirical studies geared towards equipping psychotherapists with current experiences and skills in psychotherapy, as well as holistic approach to psychotherapy in Africa. It also advocates for not only the indigenization of psychotherapy but the integration of African Traditional Religion as well as Christian religion and psychotherapy.

    Many scholars are showing great interest in the Journal as article contributors or editorial advisers. Many more are solicited. We express our gratitude to our Peer-reviewers, Editorial Board and the Board of Directors for their noble roles in making this journal a reality.

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    International Journal for Psychotherapy in Africa – 2019 (Volume 4)

    International Journal for Psychotherapy in Africa – 2019 (Volume 4)

    International Journal for Psychotherapy in Africa is published by the School of Psychotherapy and Health Sciences, Okija, Nigeria, with the editorial policy to address issues that border on people’s psychological health and psychotherapy in African. The Journal publishes contributions that advance the frontier of knowledge in psychotherapy in Africa, submitted by trained psychotherapists, psychologists, and other scholars from related disciplines, whose research works and practical experience unraveled mix bag of edge-cutting knowledge and psychotherapy practice. While the emphasis is on empirical papers, the journal also accepts theoretical papers, review articles, short communications and interactions containing fair commentary. Priority is given to articles that are relevant to Africa, and that address psychotherapeutic issues, mental health, and wellness.

    The need for psychotherapeutic intervention is very vital in many countries of Africa. Today, the countries are being challenged by various forms of conflict and insecurity problems like terrorism, and insurgency, the aftermath of which many innocent individuals, families and communities are displaced of their natural residences; and are physically and mentally tormented. In face of this condition, the International Journal for Psychotherapy in African holds it as a responsibility to invite scholars to contribute their knowledge of Psychotherapeutic intervention models that will be of great help in assisting victims of this menace.

    This Fourth Edition of the International Journal for Psychotherapy in African contains many scholarly vibrant research articles in areas of insurgencies, internal displacement of persons, trauma, substance abuse, among others. The scholars cross-pollinated knowledge on their psychotherapy models and expressed the importance of psychotherapy for mental wellness in African.

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    International Journal for Psychotherapy in Africa – Volume 2 (PDF)

    International Journal for Psychotherapy in Africa – Volume 2 (PDF)

    This second Edition of the International Journal of Psychotherapy in Africa contains well researched and articulated empirical studies geared towards equipping psychotherapists with current experiences and skills in psychotherapy, as well as holistic approach to psychotherapy in Africa. It also advocates for not only the indigenization of psychotherapy but the integration of African Traditional Religion as well as Christian religion and psychotherapy. Many scholars are showing great interest in the Journal as article contributors or editorial advisers. Many more are solicited. We express our gratitude to our Peerreviewers, Editorial Board and the Board of Directors for their noble roles in making this journal a reality.

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    International Journal of Psychotherapy in Africa – 2016 (Volume 1)

    International Journal of Psychotherapy in Africa – 2016 (Volume 1)

    This paper highlights not only the above lacuna but also describes the important aspects of psychotherapy training in the Western world. It went further to describe current efforts being made in Nigeria to establish a world-class tertiary institution, the School of Psychotherapy and Health Sciences (SPHS), which takes it lead from modern psychotherapy training programmes in Austria. The SPHS in Nigeria has also been affiliated Sigmund Freud University, Austria. Students from SPHS will be trained by qualified staff from Nigeria and from Austria, and they will be properly equipped with psychotherapeutic skills that will enable them to address the emotional problems of Nigerians, in which ever work-setting they find themselves. They will also be registerable the World Council for Psychotherapy and with other psychotherapy organisations world-wide.

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    Meseron Therapy

    Meseron Therapy

    Abstract

    Meseron therapy was developed by Alfred Awaritefe in 1995, the word Meseron is an
    Urhobo word which means “I reject it”. The core component in Meseron therapy is the
    power of the spoken word which cuts across cultural and religious boundaries. A general
    opinion is that words are powerful; they can make or mar, indeed, life and death are said to
    lie in the tongue. [Prv. 18:21] The Urhobos characteristically reject the unwholesome by
    saying “Meseron” i.e. “I reject it” at the mention of anything unwholesome. Incidentally this
    practice has found its way into conventional expression among Nigerians as reflected in an
    increased sensitivity to reject the unwholesome, unwelcome and unpleasant with phrases like
    “I reject poverty”, “I reject ill health” “it is not my portion” “God forbid” and so on. This
    widespread “I reject it” mind-set makes Meseron therapy a viable tool in clinical practice if
    well harnessed. Meseron therapy possess therapeutic strength and value with its undertone of
    optimism and resilience. However, Meseron therapy does not subscribe to empty optimism,
    the flipside of rejecting the unwholesome is accepting the wholesome. Research evidence
    abound on its use in therapeutic interventions like the management of fear, emotional
    disorder, as an antidote to stress etc. Meseron therapy also compares favourably well with
    western therapies of cognitive and motivational perspectives. This paper attempts to expose
    the rich theoretical viewpoints of Meseron therapy with the hope that its use in research/
    clinical practice will be further enhanced.

     

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    Meseron Therapy As A Motivation Theory

    Meseron Therapy As A Motivation Theory

    Abstract

    Reference is often made to Meseron as an African originated form of cognitive therapy. This
    classification arises from Meseron’s use of concepts such as thinking perceptive capacity,
    appraisal mechanism, operational facilities and choice. This is factual, but little is said about
    Meseron as a motivation theory. This paper intends to fill the gap by pointing out Meseron’s
    definition of man as a striving creature, its emphasis on resilience and the principle of “I
    can”.

     

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    Peer Influence, Rank And Self-Esteem: A Predictive Of Psychotherapeutic View Of Hostile Behaviour Among Police Personnel In Awka City

    Peer Influence, Rank And Self-Esteem: A Predictive Of Psychotherapeutic View Of Hostile Behaviour Among Police Personnel In Awka City

    Abstract

    The study examined peer influence, rank and self-esteem as predictors of psychotherapeutic view of hostile behavior among police personnel working in Awka City. A total number of two hundred and twenty-two (222) police personnel served as participant for the study. They were selected using a non probability convenient random sampling. They consisted of 96 males and 126 female. Their age ranged from 22-51 years with mean age was 34.87 and standard deviation of 7.0. Instruments use to generate data for the study were; Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire by Buss-Perry (1992), Index of Peer Relation (IPR) by Hudson (1982), Validated by Anumba (1995) and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem (RSE) scale (1965). Multiple Linear Regression Statistics were used to analyze the data. Three hypotheses were tested. The result revealed that hypothesis one which state that peer influence will predict hostility behavior was accepted at f (β=.16, t = 2.5, p< .01), hypothesis two which state that rank will significantly predict hostility behavior was accepted at f (β=.26, t =3.9, p<.01), while hypothesis three which state that self-esteem will significantly predict hostility behavior was also accepted at f (β= -.16, t = -3.31, p< .01). Based on the findings, conclusion were made and implication of the study was also stated.

    Key words: Peer Influence, Rank, Self-Esteem, Psychotherapy, Hostile Behavior, Police Personnel.

     

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    Personality Trait, Drug use and Abuse as Predictors of Suicidal Intention Among Youths: A Focus for Psychotherapy

    Personality Trait, Drug use and Abuse as Predictors of Suicidal Intention Among Youths: A Focus for Psychotherapy

    Abstract

    The rate at which youths commit suicide and the number who attempt suicide is on the increase every day. Every suicide is a tragedy that affects families, communities and entire countries and has long-lasting effects on the people left behind. This study investigates Personality Trait and Drug use and Abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Makurdi Metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria, and makes suggestions for effective psychotherapeutic treatment of suicidal ideation among the youth. The study employed survey research design where 325 participants were randomly drawn from Makurdi Metropolis in Benue State through Stratified, Convenience and Simple Random Sampling Methods. Personality Trait Scale, Drug use and Abuse Scale, Bio data and Suicidal Ideation Scale were used for data collection.
    Three hypotheses were tested using multiple regression and simple regression analyses. The result revealed a positive relationship between Personality Trait and suicidal intention among adolescents. Drug use and Abuse also shows significant influence on suicidal intention among the youths. There was a significant interactive influence of Personality Trait and Drug use and Abuse on suicide ideations among the adolescents.

    Based on these findings, it was concluded that Personality Trait and Drug use and Abuse are predictors of suicidal ideation among youths in Makurdi Metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. It is recommended that understanding personality traits of youths, type of substance used and abused can further help Clinicians during psychotherapeutic sessions with youths in solving problems of suicidal ideation. Parents and caregivers
    should be enlightened on the behavioral and attitudinal signs to watch out for when their
    wards are abusing drugs and also the danger of the use and abuse of drugs.

     

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    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Trafficked Victims, Role Of Self-Esteem, Demographic Factors And Relevance Of Psychotherapy

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Trafficked Victims, Role Of Self-Esteem, Demographic Factors And Relevance Of Psychotherapy

    Abstract

    Objective: Experiences of traumatic exposure of trafficked victims keep tormenting them after they are rescued. Trafficked victims at rehabilitation centers of National Agency for Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP) at Southern Zones have been found to present with posttraumatic stress disorder. This finding made it necessary that improving their mental health should include efforts to identify factors likely to predispose, maintain, or perpetuate PTSD presentation among trafficked victims. Current study thereby examined posttraumatic stress disorder among trafficked
    victims: the role of self-esteem and demographic factors.

    Method: 55 participants
    selected through total population sampling technique from the rehabilitation centers of NAPTIP in their South-East, South-South, and South-West zonal offices, participated. Their age ranged between 14 to 25 years, with a mean age of 19.89 and a standard deviation of 2.87. The instruments administered on them were Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Keane Scale (PKS) (Keane, Malloy & Fairbanks, 1984) and Index of Self –Esteem (ISE) (Hudson, 1982). Mental State Examination of some of the clients was also done. The study used ex-post-facto design and Independent t-test was used to test the hypotheses.

    Result: This revealed that hypotheses two to seven on demographic factors were rejected. It also showed that only hypothesis one on self-esteem was accepted, t(53)=-3.26, p <.05. Conclusion:

    The relevance of psychotherapy will establish the linkage through trafficked victims at rehabilitation centers of NAPTIP in her zonal offices in the southern parts of Nigeria, and determine self-esteem factor likely to
    influence PTSD presentation.

     

     

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    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Depression In Personnel Of Nigeria Police Force: Implications For Psychotherapy

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Depression In Personnel Of Nigeria Police Force: Implications For Psychotherapy

    Abstract

    Psychological disorders associated with combat operations among active duty military
    and police personnel have become one of the most serious issues compelling the
    increasing attention of scholars in traumatic stress studies, psychology, psychiatry,
    contemporary medicine, human development, military and police administrators. Most of
    the research investigation on this insidious mental health crisis has, however, been
    reported in military populations more than in police personnel. In addition, very few
    studies have examined the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in
    Nigeria and the role of combat deployment on the manifestation of PTSD symptoms
    among personnel of the Nigeria Police Force. The purpose of the current article is to
    summarize and discuss the current empirical research on the prevalence of PTSD and
    depression in personnel of Nigeria Police Force, using cohorts from Federal Capital
    Territory, Abuja (FCT-Abuja); Abia, Benue and Lagos states, Nigeria, who returned
    from counter terrorism, insurgency operations and other combat duties, and the impact
    of combat deployment on PTSD symptoms manifestation in the cohort. The article, also,
    highlights implications of the research findings for psychotherapy as well as recommends
    a holistic psychological model, the Three-Dimensional Psychological Intervention
    Strategy (3-DPIS) Model, integrating psychological science, art and culture in
    psychotherapy, to address the identified mental health crisis

     

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    Primogenitor-Psychotherapy – Becoming and Belonging: An Archaeology of Meaning. A Holistic Perspective of Mental Health Care among the Igbo People of South-Eastern Nigeria

    Primogenitor-Psychotherapy – Becoming and Belonging: An Archaeology of Meaning. A Holistic Perspective of Mental Health Care among the Igbo People of South-Eastern Nigeria

    Abstract

    Healing is a general understanding in the area of Health Services. It is nevertheless not a univocal concept. The one-dimensional consideration of the Human Person does not correspond to his or her Being Human and with his longing for healing. There is a necessity to see him or her from the holistic perspective. There are therefore, culturally immanent concepts and methods that contribute to the holistic healing of the individual. The concept of “Belonging” is one of such culturally immanent ways of holistic healing and philosophically closely connected with “Becoming”. It is a most fundamental characteristic of being human (Wolfers, 2018). The concept is very peculiar to the Igbos of Southeast Nigeria. “Belonging, understood as a Life-Sense (Ibe bu ike – Belonging is strength) has to do with the actively Living, though it never excludes the Living-Dead in their potential Meaning-Relations. The major business of Primogenitor-Psychotherapy therefore, is to elicit and lay bare all those conscious and unconscious Meaning Potentials waiting to be realised by those in immediate need of clinical treatment. The setting I have called the “Archaeology of Meaning.

    Two original symbols are of vital importance in their narrative structure: the OFOR and the COLANUT Symbols. The maieutic method finds here its application and strength. The objective is the enhancement of Logotherapy and Existential Analysis, utilizing thereby the “Predominant Features of Personality of the intended Subjects under study. “Selective Perception, Prioritization and Scaling System help to create an inner awareness that resonates with the Treatment Objective in the patient.

     

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    Psychological Defense Mechanisms And Coping Behavior: Parenting Of Young Children With Psychological Developmental Disorders

    Psychological Defense Mechanisms And Coping Behavior: Parenting Of Young Children With Psychological Developmental Disorders

    Abstract

    The study was carried out to investigate the psychological defense mechanisms and the coping behavior of parents raising children with psychological developmental disorders. 190 parents of children under the age of 3 with psychological developmental disorders participated in the study. Developmental  and psychomotor retardation levels in children was confirmed by the result of psycho diagnostic examination which made it possible to determine features of motor, speech, cognitive, socio- emotional spheres  and every day adaptation. To investigate the defense mechanism of parents of children with developmental retardation, the following techniques where use: Psychological diagnostics of lifestyle index; Diagnostic methodology of coping behavior in stressful situations; Strategic diagnostics of impunity behavior in conflict situations. The analysis of the results showed that the most typical was the mechanism of psychological defense such as projection for all parents regardless of their children’s degree of mental retardation. A comparative analysis made it possible to establish that the parents of children with a high degree of mental retardation were significantly more inherent to use unconsciously such mechanisms of psychological protection like denial, displacement and reaction formation. Parents whose children have a high level of mental retardation were more likely to use coping behavior that reflects orientation towards avoidance

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    Psychological Intervention Outcome Of In-Patients Referred For Insight Oriented Therapy In Federal Neurosychiatric Hospital, Yaba Lagos

    Psychological Intervention Outcome Of In-Patients Referred For Insight Oriented Therapy In Federal Neurosychiatric Hospital, Yaba Lagos

    Abstract

    Insight has been found to be an integral component that ensures success in most psychiatry
    treatment. It appears that, the more the client can understand the cause of the illness, the
    greater their chances of resolving their unpleasant experience. Insight-oriented
    psychotherapy is a client-centred therapy, a talk therapy that guides clients toward
    developing and understanding of self. It assumes that the client is healthy and their problem
    is a result of faulty-thinking. This study focused on testing the efficacy of insight oriented
    therapy in improving participants’ level of illness awareness. Forty three (43) inpatients
    from a federal government mental health facility were purposively selected based on
    referrals for individualized insight oriented therapy for a 12-session program. Participants
    responded to Beck Cognitive Insight Scale prior and after intervention (pre-posttest).The
    participants were made up of 23 males and 20 females with an average age of 32.21 9.31
    who entered therapy session upon referrals. The results revealed that insight oriented
    therapy had a significant impact on the level of the study sample’s insight
    [ t(42)= 47.429 p<.01]. Conclusively, insight oriented therapy has been
    found in this study to be efficacious in the management of patient with poor insight. Authors
    suggested that more clinical trials should be carried out to test It’s efficacy in larger samples
    and with control samples.

     

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    Psychological Intervention To Break The Cycle Of Violence And Accelerate Public Safety, Security And Development (With Special Reference To Africa)

    Psychological Intervention To Break The Cycle Of Violence And Accelerate Public Safety, Security And Development (With Special Reference To Africa)

    Abstract

    Pervasive and unrelenting violence threatens the safety and security of women and
    children, present day survival and collective future of the people in various communities
    and nations, across the globe. This tragic crisis has become one of the most serious
    issues compelling the increasing attention of governments, at all levels, scholars in
    traumatic stress studies, psychology, psychiatry, contemporary medicine, human
    development, military and police administrators. Countries and communities are being
    destroyed by violence. Images and accounts of violence pervade the media; it is on the
    streets, homes, schools, workplaces and institutions. It has become a universal scourge
    that tears at the fabric of society. In a world desperate to comprehend, address and
    arrest the seemingly ever-enlarging explosion of violence and its psychological
    aftermath, the Three-Dimensional Psychological Intervention Strategy (3-DPIS) Model
    has been developed to explain the underlying factors that perpetuate violence in society
    and the 3-DPIS Model to holistically address these factors and break the vicious circle
    (Igboegwu, 2016).

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    Psychometric Properties of Thinking Style Inventory in Nigeria: A Preliminary Investigations

    Psychometric Properties of Thinking Style Inventory in Nigeria: A Preliminary Investigations

    Abstract

    The present study was on the investigations of the psychometric properties of Sternberg
    Thinking Style Inventory (TSI) in Nigeria. Eight hundred and seventy eight (878) adult
    participants recruited from 3 cardinal regions representing 3 major ethnic groups in Nigeria
    were involved in the study. They included 587 males and 291 females from diverse
    occupations including teaching, civil service, military, police, clergy and university
    undergraduates. TSI by Sternberg and Wagner (1991) was administered to the participants
    to determine the construct validity of the 13 different subscales of the instrument in Nigerian
    participants. Exploratory factor analysis, reliability statistics and 2 WAY MANOVA statistics
    were used for data analysis. The result of the study showed one factor extraction using the
    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) at eigen value greater than 1.However when the
    method of percentile of variance extracted was used (Pett, Lackey & Sullivan, 2003) 6
    components were extracted. Conversely moderate positive correlations existed among the
    various subscale of the TSI. On the other hand significant occupation differences were found
    among various occupations on TSI suggesting good level of discriminatory validity based on
    occupation. However, TSI did not correlate with measure of cognitive mental task called
    puzzle game. Overall, TSI showed to be a promising inventory for Nigeria population but
    more research works are needed to position the inventory for Nigerian use.

    Authors:

    Valentine A. Ucheagwu

    Department of Psychology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Igbariam Campus

     Bernard Chine

    Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

     

    Rita N. Ugokwe-Ossai

    Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

     

    Jesse P. Ossai

    Department of Psychology, Imo State University, Owerri

     

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