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    Demographic Influence on the Perception of E-Psychotherapy among Clinical Psychologists in South-East Nigeria

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    Demographic Influence on the Perception of E-Psychotherapy among Clinical Psychologists in South-East Nigeria

    Abstract

    This study examined the influences of age, gender and years of experience on the perception
    of e-psychotherapy among clinical psychologists within South Eastern Nigeria. 51 practicing
    clinical psychologists (26 males and 25 females) within the age range of 28 to 56 years (M =
    42.37, SD= 5.56) were used for the study. An e-psychotherapy scale was employed to elicit
    data for the study. The survey research design, independent sample t-test and Analysis of
    Variance were used for data collations and analysis. The findings revealed that South-East
    clinical psychologists significantly have a positive perception of e-psychotherapy and gender
    and years of practice have significant influence on e-Psychotherapy. However, age influence
    on e-psychotherapy did not reach a statistical significance. It is, therefore, recommended
    that clinical psychologists in Nigeria would perform more effectively using e-psychotherapy.

     

    Authors:

    Nkwam C. Uwaoma

    nkwams@yahoo.com

    Lois Chioma Uhiara

    uhokalois@yahoo.com

    Richards E. Ebeh

    richebeh@gmail.com

    Department of Psychology, Imo State University, Owerri

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    Importance of Psychotherapy Towards Promotion of Mental Wellness in Africa

    Importance of Psychotherapy Towards Promotion of Mental Wellness in Africa

    Abstract

    The issue of mental health affects everyone, particularly wellness of life such as emotional stability and stress free among others. Contextually, most African countries are beleaguered by poverty, wars, terrorism, insecurity and superstition leading to emotional distress, trauma, malnutrition, substance abuse, and other psychological problems. Therefore, provision of psychotherapy and its importance cannot be overemphasized, as it is essential for promoting mental wellness in the face of accumulated tension, which if not taken care of would lead to many illnesses. Example at hand is the aftermath of the just concluded political election in Nigeria, which have left many vulnerable that include loss of loved ones amidst myriad of other psychological problems. Accordingly, this paper wishes to survey the numerous contributions psychotherapy would make towards the development of mental wellness in African, using Nigeria as a case study, particularly in the form of providing advocacy for relaxation and stress management. Hence, data collected from 10 counsellors-in-training would be used as evidence-base narratives to support integration of psycho-therapeutic intervention to daily experiences of life aimed at achieving greater wellness of life.

     

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    Peer Influence, Rank And Self-Esteem: A Predictive Of Psychotherapeutic View Of Hostile Behaviour Among Police Personnel In Awka City

    Peer Influence, Rank And Self-Esteem: A Predictive Of Psychotherapeutic View Of Hostile Behaviour Among Police Personnel In Awka City

    Abstract

    The study examined peer influence, rank and self-esteem as predictors of psychotherapeutic view of hostile behavior among police personnel working in Awka City. A total number of two hundred and twenty-two (222) police personnel served as participant for the study. They were selected using a non probability convenient random sampling. They consisted of 96 males and 126 female. Their age ranged from 22-51 years with mean age was 34.87 and standard deviation of 7.0. Instruments use to generate data for the study were; Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire by Buss-Perry (1992), Index of Peer Relation (IPR) by Hudson (1982), Validated by Anumba (1995) and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem (RSE) scale (1965). Multiple Linear Regression Statistics were used to analyze the data. Three hypotheses were tested. The result revealed that hypothesis one which state that peer influence will predict hostility behavior was accepted at f (β=.16, t = 2.5, p< .01), hypothesis two which state that rank will significantly predict hostility behavior was accepted at f (β=.26, t =3.9, p<.01), while hypothesis three which state that self-esteem will significantly predict hostility behavior was also accepted at f (β= -.16, t = -3.31, p< .01). Based on the findings, conclusion were made and implication of the study was also stated.

    Key words: Peer Influence, Rank, Self-Esteem, Psychotherapy, Hostile Behavior, Police Personnel.

     

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    Psychotherapeutic Practice Experience In Yaba Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos

    Psychotherapeutic Practice Experience In Yaba Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos

    Abstract

    Review of previous studies shows that psychotherapy helps people make positive changes in their lives. In psychotherapy, psychological principle and scientifically validated procedures help people develop healthier, more effective habits and positive coping skills.  In Yaba, referral for psychotherapy ranges from 50-60 clients, for both in and out clients, in the hospital per week.  Clinical experiences validate previous scientific reports of psychotherapeutic efficacy in managing behaviour disorders.  Hospital based psychotherapy is a collaborative management that builds on the relationship between client(s) and the therapist and it provides a supportive environment for both the therapist and the clients. There are different approaches to psychotherapy, in the hospital, with different and unique theoretical perspectives.  Each theoretical perspective acts as a roadmap to help the therapist understand their clients, their problems and develop solutions. It could also take various forms, including individual, family, marital and group. This paper is an attempt to present the psychotherapeutic approaches and practice experiences in Yaba Psychiatric Hospital.  Sharing our experiences with other professional colleagues will not only serve as scientific information that have the potential for practice adjustment to professional colleagues in other centres but may also provide some ingredients of improvement to our centre’s clinical practice. This paper is an attempt to present the psychotherapeutic approaches and practice experiences in Yaba Psychiatric Hospital.  Sharing our experiences with other professional colleagues will not only serve as scientific information that has the potential for practice adjustment to professional colleagues in other centres, but may also provide some ingredients of improvement to our centre’s clinical practice.

     

    Key words: Psychotherapy, Hospital, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Psychotherapeutic Practice

     

     

    Ajirotutu, O.,  Akinnawo, E. O. and Akinniyi, O.,

    Department of Behavioural Studies,

    Redeemer’s University, Ede.

     

    Email:tayoajirotutu2000@yahoo.com, estaaks:26@gmail.com

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    Psychotherapeutic Values of Igbo Healing Practices: The ‘Umunna Psychotherapy’

    Psychotherapeutic Values of Igbo Healing Practices: The ‘Umunna Psychotherapy’

    Abstract

    It had been observed by some researchers that psychotherapy should include effective emotional
    healing activities of African traditional healers, religious faith healers, and African originated
    forms of psychotherapy. This has not been achieved. To this effect, this study investigated how the
    Igbo healing practices can be harnessed into psychotherapy interventions and techniques. The
    main argument here is that Igbo traditional healing practices both the cultural and religious,
    have definable psychotherapeutic values; hence, the need to provide some theoretical and
    practical bases for recognition and adaptation of these practices into general and specific forms
    of psychotherapy.
    The research adopted a qualitative approach based on key informant interview (KII) of
    four purposively selected native doctors, four spiritual kings and four clergy men: two Catholic
    priests and two Protestant pastors from a purposively selected local government area in Anambra
    State, Idemili North, in the Southeast Nigeria. Intensive structured interview method, where seven
    specific questions were used to elicit information as concerned both the spiritual and traditional
    ‘psychotherapeutic practices of the Igbo people’ was adopted. The information gathered were
    thematically analyzed based on the information of the participants, principles of Gestalt
    psychology and macro ethical categorizations, and the general Igbo philosophy and world-view,
    especially as express in idioms, names and proverbs; and in comparison to euro-western views of
    psychotherapy.
    The results revealed that ‘psychotherapy’ had been in existence in Igbo cultural traditions
    for a very long time; having diagnosis (includes listening, questioning, examinations,
    consultations, divination) and interventions (involves sacrifices and ikpu alu, among others) as its
    major procedural parts. It also revealed the Igbo Concept and Sources of Psychopathology, and
    Some Qualities that are Common to Most Igbo ‘Psychotherapists’. It also revealed that the most
    popular technique in use is the ‘Umunna’-centered technique. Cultural aptness, acceptability,
    affordability, availability, effectiveness, low cost, inclusivity, wholesome restoration, zero percent
    chance of relapse and adoptability were found as some major advantages of Umunna
    ‘psychotherapy’. It was also observed to provide high levels of psychological, spiritual and social
    supports for the clients, and these in turn, lead to high restoration of eudemonia within a
    calculated period, both of the client and his/her umunna. Though simple and unique, it covers a
    wide range of psychotherapeuticism. However, the issue of confidentiality is of no interest to the
    Umunna psychotherapy.
    Based on the values found, the study recommends Umunna ‘psychotherapy’ to all
    psychotherapists, both as a type and a technique, and both within and outside the Igbo cultural
    regions.

     

    Author:

    Innocent U.O. Ejiofo,

    Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    Email: udobuchinno@yahoo.com

     

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    Psychotherapy And Counselling: Attitudes Toward Mental Health Seeking Services In Nigeria

    Psychotherapy And Counselling: Attitudes Toward Mental Health Seeking Services In Nigeria

    Abstract

    This paper explored the attitudes of Nigerians toward mental health seeking services with
    regards to the reality of psychotherapy and counseling in Nigeria. Some cultural variables
    that fuel the supposed neglect of the mental health issues in Nigeria were highlighted and
    way-forward offered. Culture and society tend to influence all spheres of life including
    mental health, mental illness, and mental health services. In view of this fact it becomes
    pertinent to develop mental health services that would be more acceptable to the culture and
    social environment where recipients are located. In addition, victims of mental health
    challenges are reassured to feel safe in the hands of counsellors and psychotherapists, as
    they passionately abhor stigmatization, social distancing and numerous cultural obnoxious
    treatments to individuals impacted by mental health disorders or illnesses in Nigeria.

     

    Authors: Catherine (Kate) N. Ekwe 1and Chijioke E. Ohuakanwa 2

    Department of Educational Foundations and Counselling Research Unit,

    Gender & Women Studies,

    Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.

    1E-mail: ekwekay@gmail.com

    2E-mail: chijiokeohuakanwa@gmail.com

     

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    Psychotherapy And Effective Counseling In Social Casework Practice

    Psychotherapy And Effective Counseling In Social Casework Practice

    Abstract

    Counseling is a process in which the counselor assists the counselee to make interpretation
    of facts relating to a choice, plan, or adjustment. This assistance may take many forms such
    as educational, vocational, social, personal, emotional and moral. While psychotherapy is
    the treatment of mental illness by discussing somebody’s problems with them rather than
    giving them drugs. This paper attempts to look at how professional counseling should be
    done, the key difference between the two courses of therapeutic communication treatment
    and how do contemporary theories of counseling work with families’ adjustment and solving
    problem. The study was conducted using secondary method of data. The secondary sources
    used data from internet, newspapers and journal articles. The paper recommends the need
    for psychotherapy and counseling practice in Nigeria; for a long time, the problem of
    integration of the different ethnic groups in Nigeria may well be a problem which
    psychotherapy and counseling may help to solve.

    Authors: Martin Likeing1 and Adaka S.Sunday2

    Department of Sociology,

    Federal University Lafia, Nigeria.

    1Email: limatchat@yahoo.com

    2Email: sunnidaka@yahoo.com

     

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    Psychotherapy And Private Practice: Why We Are Still Lagging Behind

    Psychotherapy And Private Practice: Why We Are Still Lagging Behind

    Abstract

    This paper focuses on the failure of psychotherapy in private practice, classifying the lapses
    in the practice resulting to the unimportance in the practice among Nigerian Clinical
    Psychologist. It also defines the practical roles of the Psychologist in enhancement of the
    practice. This paper relied on books and oral interviews as source of information in the
    course of development. It argued that no time is late that psychotherapeutic practice can be
    encouraged and sustained in Nigeria, outlining the steps in order to achieve this objectives.
    This paper will provide valuable information regarding learning, knowledge and answer the
    question which a lot of young Psychologist has been asking “is there a hope for us in this our
    profession”. Hence the findings will be useful in policy making, therapeutic purposes and
    bases for further research.

    Authors:

    Dozie Nwafor,

    Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

    dozie2001ng@yahoo.com

     

    Okoye Chukwuemeka, A. F.,

    Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

    drokoyecaf@ gmail.com, okoyecaf@unizik.edu.ng

     

    Okonkwo Ikechukwu C.

    Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

    okonkwoikechukwuc@gmail.com

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    Psychotherapy And Rehabilitation Of Students With Behavioural Disorders In Nigeria

    Psychotherapy And Rehabilitation Of Students With Behavioural Disorders In Nigeria

    Absract

    Research into the myriad of factors that could promote mental well-being of young adults in
    the institution of higher learning would continue unabated as long as the subject matter,
    Risky behaviour remains potent to psychologists, mental health workers, and other
    significant care givers. This study evaluated the efficacy of psychotherapy and rehabilitation
    program in reducing behavioural disorders and risky lifestyle of Babcock University students
    returning from one year behavioural sanction. Eighty-Seven students (71.26% male and
    28.78% female) suspended for various violation/misconduct were asked to sign a behavioural
    contract with the consent of their parent/guardians and consequently, completed the
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 structured form (MMPI-2).About 75% of the
    students reported high T-score on emotional Internalizing Dysfunction EID, Thought
    Dysfunction THD, and Behavioural/External Dysfunction BXD. The students were assigned
    to two session psychotherapeutic treatment per week and three hours weekly group emotional
    competent training. At the end of the academic semester post-intervention, significant
    reduction on all measures as well as reduction in risky behaviour and high emotional
    intelligent were observed among the students. Overall, psychosocial support was found for
    the efficacy of the program. It is thus recommended that those working on young adults with
    behavioural disorders should seriously consider redemptive approach that is, psychotherapy,
    emotional fitness training and socio-spiritual reintegration.

    Nwaka, E. Promisen; Aniemeka, Onyeka O.;

    Adelakin, A.O; & Banjo, Oluwafikayomi O.

    Department of Behavioural Studies

    Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Emails: promisenn@yahoo.com; aniemekaonyeka@gmail.com

     

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    Psychotherapy in a Hospital

    Psychotherapy in a Hospital

    Abstract

    This paper examines the nature of Psychotherapy, determining its role in the hospital
    settings, and presents the case of the role of counseling intervention among discordant
    couples in NAUTH prep demonstration project. Four couples, who tested positive to HIV
    due to pre-wedding investigation (three females, one male,) and two others, a male and a
    female who tested positive following community HIV awareness, were followed for three
    months: March – June 2016. The objective was to access the behavioural changes of these
    clients in the process of enrolment to Prep. These clients were interviewed on four issues:
    their concerns about positive status, feeling of guilt and stigma, suicidal thoughts and what
    helped them to resolve their worries. One of the males was concerned about his health, three
    of the females were concerned about their marriages, and one male had no worry. All of
    them expressed feeling bad because of the stigmatization associated with the virus. Three of
    them had suicidal thoughts, but were reassured of hope after counseling. All said counseling
    helped them resolve their worries. Counseling /psychotherapy have been identified as sine
    qua non for patients on HAART to achieve effective viral suppression and act as immune
    boaster for patients on Positive Living.

    Author: Okpaleke Uche Victoria

    Department of Psychology

    Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus,

    ucheokpaleke1@yahoo.com 08136006928

     

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    Psychotherapy In Nigeria

    Psychotherapy In Nigeria

    Abstract

    There is no exact word for psychotherapy in many Nigerian languages, numbering over 250.
    But equivalent words exist for expression such as counselling and cognitive behaviour
    therapy. The practice of these arts predated the advent of the Europeans. When modern
    psychology arrived in our shores, we naturally adopted the Euro-American models of
    psychotherapy. All that makes psychotherapy necessary can be found in our country: trauma
    due to child abuse, and neglect, abuse of human dignity, tribal wars, political conflict,
    poverty, migration and stress-provoking lifestyles, among others. The Aro village system
    developed by Lambo is an attestation to the usefulness of some of our native approaches and
    to the efficacy of social support that is inherent in the African traditional system. The
    introduction of a bilingual group psychotherapy at Aro in the early 1990 was a natural
    follow-up to this development. Group therapy is the most popular form of psychotherapy as it
    is practised in most teaching hospitals and psychiatric establishments. Meseron therapy and
    harmony restoration therapy are the two foremost indigenous approaches to psychotherapy
    in Nigeria. Meseron therapy is cognitive-behavioural in orientation while harmony
    restoration therapy is existential-phenomenological. Other therapies commonly taught and
    practised include: Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy; Cognitive Behaviour Therapy;
    Behaviour Therapy; The Psychodynamic Therapies, etc. Modern psychotherapy services are
    available in private clinics/consultations, schools, hospitals and medical centres. The
    services are offered by a wide variety of professionals ranging from clinical psychologists
    and psychiatrist, to social workers, nurses and pastors. At present, focused training in
    psychotherapy is inadequate, in spite of the efforts by the universities and the Nigerian
    Association of Clinical Psychologists. This is an important lacuna that the School of
    Psychotherapy and Health Sciences, Okija, has come to fill.

     

    Alfred Awaritefe

    Department of Mental Health, School of Medicine,

    College of Medical Sciences,

    University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Email: alfawa2000@gmail.com

     

     

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    Psychotherapy In The Nigerian Armed Forces: Promoting Resilience Among Military Personnel And Their Families

    Psychotherapy In The Nigerian Armed Forces: Promoting Resilience Among Military Personnel And Their Families

    Abstract

    The Nigerian Armed Forces involved in military operations against Boko Haram insurgency
    and terrorism in the North East, Nigeria have not developed formalized strategies aimed at
    promoting the mental health and well-being of its personnel and their families.
    Unfortunately, protracted exposure to insurgency attacks and the military counter actions
    undertaken to contain these attacks have placed great stresses on the military personnel and
    their families who have already been challenged by the frequent deployments and absences
    of their spouses from home. These stresses are often presented in the form of social and
    emotional problems amongst children at home and in school. The wives of service personnel
    on the other hand are most vulnerable to depression and other psychological consequences
    of insurgency attacks as they take on more family responsibilities due to the death or
    physical and psychological incapacitation of their husbands. The personnel on their part
    face other physical and mental health issues such as traumatic experiences, physical injuries,
    depression, aggression, etc. Despite all these issues, the Nigerian Armed Forces have not put
    in place measures to ensure the provision of psychotherapeutic treatment thereby building
    and strengthening resilience for the personnel and their families. Psychotherapeutic
    interventions which concentrate on changing the ideologies of individuals, helping them
    resolve psychological issues and rehabilitation will ensure sound mental health and wellbeing
    for the military personnel and their families. It is in this regard that the study examined
    psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces for the purpose of developing resilience
    strategies among military personnel and their families

    Author:

    Philemon A. Agashua,

    Department of Psychology,

    Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna

    philagash@gmail.com

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    Psychotherapy, Insurgency And Insecurity In The North-Eastern Region Of Nigeria

    Psychotherapy, Insurgency And Insecurity In The North-Eastern Region Of Nigeria

    Abstract

    The Boko Haram insurgency has lately introduced a terrorist dimension into the crime space in Nigeria. The trademarks of the Boko Haram are wanton destruction of lives and property with reckless abandon, through bombings, abduction and slaughtering of human beings like rams, especially in Northern Nigeria. This has created palpable fear and sense of insecurity in the polity. It is a fact that the development of any country in the world is dependent on many factors, which may fast-track or retards its growth, among which security is central. Security of lives and property plays a major role in the development of any country, as investors in any economy want to be assured of the safety of their investments. The Boko Haram attacks have led to the direct exposure of children to unimaginable violence; horrors, bombing, killings, hardship, kidnapping, diseases, and family displacement. The general objective of this study is to examine the psychotherapy, insurgency and insecurity in Nigeria. This study employs qualitative research method in which analytic approach was used to address the research questions raised. The phenomenon of insurgency in Nigeria which subsequently led to the mass population displacement in the country is no doubt unconnected to the fragile nature of state and state institutions. Theoretically, it is proven in this paper that fragile nature of Nigerian state which failed to carry out its constitutional responsibilities of providing security and welfare to citizens was largely responsible for insurgency. Special rehabilitation and trauma centres should be established, especially for women and children who have had horrible experiences during the insurgency period. Traumaexposed individuals should be given special psychological debriefing treatment to prevent and contain possible post-traumatic stress and disorder (PSTD).Porous border controls should be intensified with intelligence gathering technologies in order to halt weapons and track illegal border movements and obscured border to halt weapons and track illegal border movements and obscured border crossings through collaborative efforts of regional border security personnel.

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    Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Internally Displaced Nigerian Adolescents

    Reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Internally Displaced Nigerian Adolescents

    Abstract

    This study investigated the impact of internal displacement on Post Truamatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adolescents, with a view to reducing the incidence of PTSD among victims. 283 participants of both male and female adolescents were used for the study. Data were collected by the aid of PTSD K-scale. In-depth interview as well as focused group discussion was also adopted. Result showed a significant 3- way interaction between internal displacement, age and gender in trauma symptomatology (F (1,275) =3.87, P=.05); internally displaced adolescents showed higher mean than non-displaced ones, internally displaced female adolescents exhibited more trauma than the internally displaced males; older displaced female adolescents had the highest mean trauma symptomatology of 31.35, while older displaced male adolescents had the lowest trauma symptomatology score of 27.93. Recommendation was given based on the findings.

     

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    The Application of Psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces

    The Application of Psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces

    Abstract

    The military personnel whose duty is to undertake operational duties are often exposed to trauma and stress; and some develop psychological distress as a result. The burden of mental health distress related to military occupational life is substantial as some military personnel and families flourish while others are not able to cope. Overtime, deployed military personnel and families become psychologically dysfunctional as a result of trauma and acute stress syndrome which result to post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and emotional burn-out. Although, little attempt has been made to assess and meet the mental health needs of the military community holistically. This negligence is costly considering that the psychological health of the military family has been found to be directly related to the readiness, well-being and retention of service members. More so, the impact of negative attachment reactions on the cognitive development of children as a result of separations related to military deployment and postings have been observed. But at the moment, the government and NGO’s have focused mainly on the physical welfare needs of the wounded military personnel only, while the mental wellbeing of their families who are victims of counter-insurgency operations have been overlooked. The study therefore examined the application of psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces. The researchers also discussed common psychotherapeutic techniques relevant to the treatment of military personnel and families with the need to adopt a preventive approach to mental health promotion.

    Authors: Philemon A. Agashua, Jonathan I. Ugese, Funke T. Olofin

    Department of Psychology Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna

    Email: philagash@gmail.com Mobile number: +23408057972305

     

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    Trajectory of Psychotherapy In Africa

    Trajectory of Psychotherapy In Africa

    Abstract

    This paper examines trajectory of psychotherapy in Africa. It touches on the meaning of psychotherapy, types, as well as goals and relevance of psychotherapy. The key factors is with greater emphasis in psychotherapy where in Africa certain set-backs and challenges have been heavily represented with terrorism leading to posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) from kidnapping down to Boko-Harram and Fulani herdsmen violence that undermine security and national development. Sequel to this, economic recession and anxiety of the mass is another cancerous triggered to corruption which clinicians identify today as a major set-back in African socioeconomic and political development. Other issues facing the clinicians and students of psychotherapy with the service users are lack of keeping clinical records for data purposes, problems of referrals, poor accessibility to clinical resources and team relationships. The objective of this paper is to discuss in-depths these African issues and a way of advancing psychotherapy in Africa to a lofty heights. Proffering solutions could be identify through extensive training, entrepreneurship model, and also using continuation of professional development (CPD) to generate learning from the existing challenges in Africa through conferences, seminars and workshops. Unfortunately some clinicians in the society lack the zeal of pursuing CPD model of knowledge and experience as they find it difficult not only to engage with others but to come together and work as a team. Training is always a major reflection in working relationship in group practice to make relevance the dynamism required of psychotherapy. Importantly, using working groups formula (WDEP) that is focused in African way on client centred approach will serve as another panacea aimed at understanding clients (patients) in the group processes, while taken cognisance people’s real life situations, to guard against some risks that may jeopardize group in psychotherapy. It is therefore recommended that those practising psychotherapy in African setting should bear in mind the relevance of clinical practice as evidence based and good quality of care in the art of psychotherapy.

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