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    Challenges Facing Psychotherapists In Africa In The Hit Of The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) Global Pandemic

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    Challenges Facing Psychotherapists In Africa In The Hit Of The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) Global Pandemic

    Abstract

    To fully understand the challenges facing psychotherapists in Africa in the hit of the
    Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic, the paper visited/reflected the
    origin and transmission of the virus, the global epidemiology, and the resultant adoption
    of international and national lockdown limiting heavily movements of people and goods
    to prevent further spread of the virus. The lockdown, however, has seriously affected the
    interpersonal relationships and freedom of gathering. It is also expected that it will have
    adverse mental and psychological effects leading to behavioural, emotional, social/family
    problems. Increased incidence of stress reactivity and anxiety, reality denial, depression,
    isolation, loneliness and lack of social support, undesirable marital adjustment and
    irritability, trauma, self-injurious behaviours like suicidal ideation and drug addiction,
    unhealthy eating behaviours and resultant increase in weight, and Obsessive Compulsive
    Disorder, increased neuropsychological symptoms, are some of the expected adverse
    effects of the lockdown. The ability to adequately address all these anticipated problems
    pose a big challenge to the few qualified psychotherapists in Africa. There are also very
    few institutions for the training of psychotherapist in Africa south of Sahara. The speed
    with which the virus is spreading also calls for short-term acquisition of hands-on
    psychotherapeutic skills. African governments are therefore called upon to address the
    above-mentioned shortage as a matter of urgency. The few psychotherapists available in
    Africa are also called upon to look into the above psychologically unhealthy situation
    from the point of view of crisis intervention.

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    Diagnosis And Treatment Of Mental Illness By Vhavenda Traditional Healers In Vhembe District, South Africa

    Diagnosis And Treatment Of Mental Illness By Vhavenda Traditional Healers In Vhembe District, South Africa

    Abstract

    In rural African communities, traditional healers hold an esteemed and powerful position
    in the diagnosis and treatment of various illnesses. They assume a significant role in
    addressing the mental health care needs of individuals by offering cultural appropriate
    treatment and they are easily accessible. This was a qualitative study, and specifically,
    the case study method was utilised. Ten traditional healers were chosen through
    purposive and snowball sampling to participate in the study. Data was collected through
    semi-structured interviews and analysed using the thematic analysis method. The findings
    revealed that several procedures (like throwing of bones and direct observation of
    patient’s behaviours) are used to diagnose mental illness. The findings also revealed that
    mental illness can be treated through the use of traditional remedies and practices (like
    rituals). From the findings of the study, it can be suggested that both traditional medical
    interventions and some culturally relevant psychological procedures are used to treat
    mental illness. Increased cooperation between western oriented psychotherapists and
    African traditional healers is therefore highly recommended.


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    English Language Students And Their Coping Styles During Lockdown As A Result Of The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) Global Pandemic

    English Language Students And Their Coping Styles During Lockdown As A Result Of The Novel Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) Global Pandemic

    Abstract

    The author examined the effective and ineffective coping mechanisms of English language undergraduate students during the total lockdown in Nigeria as a result of the Corona Virus (COVID-19) global pandemic. The participants in the study were twenty undergraduate students of English language in a state university. The students were interviewed on telephone on their coping styles during lockdown as a result of the
    COVID-19 global pandemic. Their responses were recorded on the phone, transcribed, and thematically analysed using qualitative methods. Results show that they used such effective coping mechanisms as having a positive attitude towards the lockdown, and therefore used the opportunity for reading novels, writing poems, playing and dancing music at home, and painting/drawing. Other effective coping activities reported were: Having quiet moments for meditation and prayers, home physical exercises and aerobic, sleeping/resting, watching television and movies, gardening/farming, family bonding/reunion, and expected/desired pregnancy. Some of them also reported some ineffective ways of coping, such as denial of reality of COVID-19, feeling anxious, boredom/loneliness, weight gained, substance abuse/use, domestic violence, unwanted pregnancy, longing for intimate sexual partner, being angry with the governments
    because of food-shortage/starvation, and obsessive-compulsive behaviour. The author concludes that the effective coping mechanisms would enhance their proficiency in English language, and should be encouraged; while the ineffective ways of coping would definitely be detrimental to their future professions and life in general, and should be discouraged.

     

     

     

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    Gender Differences In Attitude To The Skin Disease Atopic Dermatitis Among Adolescents: The Role Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Gender Differences In Attitude To The Skin Disease Atopic Dermatitis Among Adolescents: The Role Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Abstract

    This paper examines gender differences in attitude to the skin disease-atopic dermatitis among adolescents: The role of Cognitive- Behavioural Therapy. 83 adolescents aged between 13 and 15 and diagnosed with moderate (43) to grave (40) atopic dermatitis took part in the study. The groups were divided according to gender; group 1 was made up of 38 adolescent boys, and group 2 was made up of 45 adolescent girls. The control group included 80 adolescents (40 girls and 40 boys) matched for age. The psychodiagnostic complex used in the study were: Method for establishing the disease attitude type (DAT) and Male and Female Painting projective test. Data were analyzed using correlation and student’s t-test. The comparison of data yielded results that indicate gender-specific types of attitude to the disease among adolescents diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. A statistically significant difference between the groups was found in the anosognosic disease attitude type that is more typical of adolescent boys. This disease attitude type is characterized by active rejection of thoughts about the disease and its consequences which is explained by boy’s bravado, by their wish to demonstrate invulnerability and confidence, which is in effect an attempt to compensate for low self-appraisal.

     

     

     

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    Genuineness In Client Centered Psychotherapy: It’s Relevance To The Nigerian Society During The Convid-19 Global Pandemic

    Genuineness In Client Centered Psychotherapy: It’s Relevance To The Nigerian Society During The Convid-19 Global Pandemic

    Abstract

    In this paper, the concept of genuineness, as expressed by Carl Rogers in ClientCentered Psychotherapy, is the platform on which efforts of some Nigerian citizens and governments to curb the spread of corona virus (COVID-19) is discussed. The genuineness in seeing COVID-19 as real, the political goodwill, the sincerity in
    administering the COVID-19 funds, in carrying out the internationally mapped out measures to contain the virus, and in the distribution of the palliatives to cushion the adverse effects of the lockdown, are questioned. A call for attitudinal change on the part of the concerned citizenry and the governments are therefore made.

     

     

     

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    Integration Of Spirituality Into Psychotherapy – A Potential Model For Nigeria

    Integration Of Spirituality Into Psychotherapy – A Potential Model For Nigeria

    Abstract

    Although Sigmund Freud, reputed to be the father of psychoanalysis was not favourably disposed to religion, recent developments indicate that interest in religion and mental health and psychotherapy has grown. Most clients that come to psychotherapy are likely to have a religious orientation and will benefit from integrating spirituality into therapy. Psychotherapists need to learn the techniques and skills of how this integration can best be achieved especially in Nigeria where religion is a very sensitive issue.

     

     

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    Personality Trait, Drug use and Abuse as Predictors of Suicidal Intention Among Youths: A Focus for Psychotherapy

    Personality Trait, Drug use and Abuse as Predictors of Suicidal Intention Among Youths: A Focus for Psychotherapy

    Abstract

    The rate at which youths commit suicide and the number who attempt suicide is on the increase every day. Every suicide is a tragedy that affects families, communities and entire countries and has long-lasting effects on the people left behind. This study investigates Personality Trait and Drug use and Abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Makurdi Metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria, and makes suggestions for effective psychotherapeutic treatment of suicidal ideation among the youth. The study employed survey research design where 325 participants were randomly drawn from Makurdi Metropolis in Benue State through Stratified, Convenience and Simple Random Sampling Methods. Personality Trait Scale, Drug use and Abuse Scale, Bio data and Suicidal Ideation Scale were used for data collection.
    Three hypotheses were tested using multiple regression and simple regression analyses. The result revealed a positive relationship between Personality Trait and suicidal intention among adolescents. Drug use and Abuse also shows significant influence on suicidal intention among the youths. There was a significant interactive influence of Personality Trait and Drug use and Abuse on suicide ideations among the adolescents.

    Based on these findings, it was concluded that Personality Trait and Drug use and Abuse are predictors of suicidal ideation among youths in Makurdi Metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. It is recommended that understanding personality traits of youths, type of substance used and abused can further help Clinicians during psychotherapeutic sessions with youths in solving problems of suicidal ideation. Parents and caregivers
    should be enlightened on the behavioral and attitudinal signs to watch out for when their
    wards are abusing drugs and also the danger of the use and abuse of drugs.

     

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    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Trafficked Victims, Role Of Self-Esteem, Demographic Factors And Relevance Of Psychotherapy

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Trafficked Victims, Role Of Self-Esteem, Demographic Factors And Relevance Of Psychotherapy

    Abstract

    Objective: Experiences of traumatic exposure of trafficked victims keep tormenting them after they are rescued. Trafficked victims at rehabilitation centers of National Agency for Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP) at Southern Zones have been found to present with posttraumatic stress disorder. This finding made it necessary that improving their mental health should include efforts to identify factors likely to predispose, maintain, or perpetuate PTSD presentation among trafficked victims. Current study thereby examined posttraumatic stress disorder among trafficked
    victims: the role of self-esteem and demographic factors.

    Method: 55 participants
    selected through total population sampling technique from the rehabilitation centers of NAPTIP in their South-East, South-South, and South-West zonal offices, participated. Their age ranged between 14 to 25 years, with a mean age of 19.89 and a standard deviation of 2.87. The instruments administered on them were Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Keane Scale (PKS) (Keane, Malloy & Fairbanks, 1984) and Index of Self –Esteem (ISE) (Hudson, 1982). Mental State Examination of some of the clients was also done. The study used ex-post-facto design and Independent t-test was used to test the hypotheses.

    Result: This revealed that hypotheses two to seven on demographic factors were rejected. It also showed that only hypothesis one on self-esteem was accepted, t(53)=-3.26, p <.05. Conclusion:

    The relevance of psychotherapy will establish the linkage through trafficked victims at rehabilitation centers of NAPTIP in her zonal offices in the southern parts of Nigeria, and determine self-esteem factor likely to
    influence PTSD presentation.

     

     

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    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Depression In Personnel Of Nigeria Police Force: Implications For Psychotherapy

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Depression In Personnel Of Nigeria Police Force: Implications For Psychotherapy

    Abstract

    Psychological disorders associated with combat operations among active duty military
    and police personnel have become one of the most serious issues compelling the
    increasing attention of scholars in traumatic stress studies, psychology, psychiatry,
    contemporary medicine, human development, military and police administrators. Most of
    the research investigation on this insidious mental health crisis has, however, been
    reported in military populations more than in police personnel. In addition, very few
    studies have examined the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in
    Nigeria and the role of combat deployment on the manifestation of PTSD symptoms
    among personnel of the Nigeria Police Force. The purpose of the current article is to
    summarize and discuss the current empirical research on the prevalence of PTSD and
    depression in personnel of Nigeria Police Force, using cohorts from Federal Capital
    Territory, Abuja (FCT-Abuja); Abia, Benue and Lagos states, Nigeria, who returned
    from counter terrorism, insurgency operations and other combat duties, and the impact
    of combat deployment on PTSD symptoms manifestation in the cohort. The article, also,
    highlights implications of the research findings for psychotherapy as well as recommends
    a holistic psychological model, the Three-Dimensional Psychological Intervention
    Strategy (3-DPIS) Model, integrating psychological science, art and culture in
    psychotherapy, to address the identified mental health crisis

     

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    Psychological Intervention To Break The Cycle Of Violence And Accelerate Public Safety, Security And Development (With Special Reference To Africa)

    Psychological Intervention To Break The Cycle Of Violence And Accelerate Public Safety, Security And Development (With Special Reference To Africa)

    Abstract

    Pervasive and unrelenting violence threatens the safety and security of women and
    children, present day survival and collective future of the people in various communities
    and nations, across the globe. This tragic crisis has become one of the most serious
    issues compelling the increasing attention of governments, at all levels, scholars in
    traumatic stress studies, psychology, psychiatry, contemporary medicine, human
    development, military and police administrators. Countries and communities are being
    destroyed by violence. Images and accounts of violence pervade the media; it is on the
    streets, homes, schools, workplaces and institutions. It has become a universal scourge
    that tears at the fabric of society. In a world desperate to comprehend, address and
    arrest the seemingly ever-enlarging explosion of violence and its psychological
    aftermath, the Three-Dimensional Psychological Intervention Strategy (3-DPIS) Model
    has been developed to explain the underlying factors that perpetuate violence in society
    and the 3-DPIS Model to holistically address these factors and break the vicious circle
    (Igboegwu, 2016).

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    Psychotherapy Training In Africa South Of Sahara

    Psychotherapy Training In Africa South Of Sahara

    Abstract

    The scarcity of properly trained psychotherapists in Africa south of Sahara on the one
    hand, and the increasing incidence of emotional problems resulting from poverty and
    underdevelopment, child abuse and neglect, trauma resulting from different forms of
    crime and abuse of human dignity, insecurity problems like terrorism, insurgency,
    kidnapping and hijacking, increasing stress-provoking lifestyles, tribal and national wars
    and conflicts, westernization and globalisation, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic, different
    forms of cancer, and all sorts of abuse of human dignity on the other hand, call for
    urgent need for establishment of institutions for formal psychotherapy training in Africa.
    This paper highlights not only the above lacuna but also describes the important aspects
    of psychotherapy training in the Western world. It went further to describe current efforts
    being made (with Nigeria as an example) to establish a world-class tertiary institution,
    the School of Psychotherapy and Health Sciences (SPHS), which takes it lead from
    modern psychotherapy training programmes in Austria. The SPHS in Nigeria is affiliated
    to Sigmund Freud University, Vienna, Austria. Students from SPHS are trained by
    qualified staff from Nigeria and from Austria, and they are properly equipped with
    psychotherapeutic skills that will enable them to address the emotional problems of
    Africans, in which ever work-setting they find themselves. They are also registerable with
    the World Council for Psychotherapy and with other psychotherapy organisations worldwide.

     

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    The Relevance Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy (ACT) In The Treatment Of Emotional Numbing Among The Adolescents: A Narrative Review

    The Relevance Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy (ACT) In The Treatment Of Emotional Numbing Among The Adolescents: A Narrative Review

    Abstract

    The issue of emotional numbing is a serious emotional challenge among the adolescents
    and which is greatly impacting on them negatively and sometimes goes unnoticed until
    the damage is done. The study explored the concept of emotional numbing, its symptoms
    and the causes for a clear understanding of the phenomenon. It also examined the
    Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT), its core processes as a suitable therapeutic
    property to resolve the emotional problem of the adolescents who go through such pain.
    The ACT is a process and mindfulness model which promotes psychological flexibility
    through fostering openness, awareness and engagement as illustrated in its six core
    processes. It was observed that the ACT promotes emotional awareness through the
    functions of the six core processes of the ACT model and as a result, could be adopted to
    manage the challenges of emotional numbing among the adolescents. The researchers
    therefore recommend that the therapists identify such adolescents in the schools and
    address their issues with the ACT model.

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