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    Demographic Influence on the Perception of E-Psychotherapy among Clinical Psychologists in South-East Nigeria

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    Demographic Influence on the Perception of E-Psychotherapy among Clinical Psychologists in South-East Nigeria

    Abstract

    This study examined the influences of age, gender and years of experience on the perception
    of e-psychotherapy among clinical psychologists within South Eastern Nigeria. 51 practicing
    clinical psychologists (26 males and 25 females) within the age range of 28 to 56 years (M =
    42.37, SD= 5.56) were used for the study. An e-psychotherapy scale was employed to elicit
    data for the study. The survey research design, independent sample t-test and Analysis of
    Variance were used for data collations and analysis. The findings revealed that South-East
    clinical psychologists significantly have a positive perception of e-psychotherapy and gender
    and years of practice have significant influence on e-Psychotherapy. However, age influence
    on e-psychotherapy did not reach a statistical significance. It is, therefore, recommended
    that clinical psychologists in Nigeria would perform more effectively using e-psychotherapy.

     

    Authors:

    Nkwam C. Uwaoma

    nkwams@yahoo.com

    Lois Chioma Uhiara

    uhokalois@yahoo.com

    Richards E. Ebeh

    richebeh@gmail.com

    Department of Psychology, Imo State University, Owerri

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    Effect of Behaviour Intervention on Adolescents’ Sexual Risk-Behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Effect of Behaviour Intervention on Adolescents’ Sexual Risk-Behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Abstract

    The study examined the effect of Behaviour Intervention on adolescents’ sexual risk-behaviour. 120  adolescents comprising ( males 56, mean age = 19 years ) and  (females 64, mean age= 18.6 years)  were  selected  purposely  from  a population of  1168 SS11 students in the  eight public schools  in Awka urban using  a survey study . The participants   that had high mean score of sexual risk – behaviour, in the survey study, from a sexual risk-behaviour test (males’ mean score =47, females’ mean score = 42) were selected for intervention training.  The test has a validity of .94 and a reliability of .82. The subjects were randomly assigned into the three treatment groups, namely: Assertive group, self control group and control group, with 40 adolescents in each group. A random group design with three independent variables and a Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used for the study. The result of the data analysis showed that participants’ scores on the test for those that participated in intervention training in assertive and self-control groups differed    significantly from those participants in the control group (P =.03).However, the Scheffe pair-wise comparison test indicates that those in assertive training group had greater change (P=.017).The study concludes that Behaviour Intervention (assertive training and self-control training) had significant effect on adolescents’ sexual behaviour .

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    Fantasy Behavior Scale: The Psychometric Properties

    Fantasy Behavior Scale: The Psychometric Properties

    Abstract

    The development of a 24-item self-report scale for measuring fantasy behavior in populations
    is described, the concept was elucidated, theories and the previous studies that are
    applicable to fantasy behavior were applied and reviewed. The study also established the
    psychometric qualities and properties of the Fantasy Behavior Scale (FBS). Series of
    analyses was used to reduce the item pool from an initial 30 items to 24 items. The result of
    the factor loading for fantasy scale shows that the items loaded into seven (7) components,
    but most of the items loaded highest on five (5) factors or components which were named as
    follows: component one (fantasy behavior),loaded 17 items (8.56); component two (control
    over fantasy behavior), loaded 3 items (2.134); component three (attitude towards fantasy
    behavior), loaded 1 item (1.71); component four (loss of touch with reality), loaded 2 items
    (1.48) and component five (defense mechanism), loaded 1 item (1.44). The resulting (FBS) is
    a 24–item scale that showed high internal consistency (α = .910) and a subsequent
    reliability of (α = .881). It also showed external validity of r = .766 (2-tailed) when
    correlated with fantasy proneness scale.

    Author: Paschal Kandilichukwu Officha

    School of Psychotherapy and Health Sciences, Okija Campus

    offichapaschal@yahoo.com

     

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    Psychometric Properties of Thinking Style Inventory in Nigeria: A Preliminary Investigations

    Psychometric Properties of Thinking Style Inventory in Nigeria: A Preliminary Investigations

    Abstract

    The present study was on the investigations of the psychometric properties of Sternberg
    Thinking Style Inventory (TSI) in Nigeria. Eight hundred and seventy eight (878) adult
    participants recruited from 3 cardinal regions representing 3 major ethnic groups in Nigeria
    were involved in the study. They included 587 males and 291 females from diverse
    occupations including teaching, civil service, military, police, clergy and university
    undergraduates. TSI by Sternberg and Wagner (1991) was administered to the participants
    to determine the construct validity of the 13 different subscales of the instrument in Nigerian
    participants. Exploratory factor analysis, reliability statistics and 2 WAY MANOVA statistics
    were used for data analysis. The result of the study showed one factor extraction using the
    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) at eigen value greater than 1.However when the
    method of percentile of variance extracted was used (Pett, Lackey & Sullivan, 2003) 6
    components were extracted. Conversely moderate positive correlations existed among the
    various subscale of the TSI. On the other hand significant occupation differences were found
    among various occupations on TSI suggesting good level of discriminatory validity based on
    occupation. However, TSI did not correlate with measure of cognitive mental task called
    puzzle game. Overall, TSI showed to be a promising inventory for Nigeria population but
    more research works are needed to position the inventory for Nigerian use.

    Authors:

    Valentine A. Ucheagwu

    Department of Psychology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Igbariam Campus

     Bernard Chine

    Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

     

    Rita N. Ugokwe-Ossai

    Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

     

    Jesse P. Ossai

    Department of Psychology, Imo State University, Owerri

     

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    Psychotherapeutic Values of Igbo Healing Practices: The ‘Umunna Psychotherapy’

    Psychotherapeutic Values of Igbo Healing Practices: The ‘Umunna Psychotherapy’

    Abstract

    It had been observed by some researchers that psychotherapy should include effective emotional
    healing activities of African traditional healers, religious faith healers, and African originated
    forms of psychotherapy. This has not been achieved. To this effect, this study investigated how the
    Igbo healing practices can be harnessed into psychotherapy interventions and techniques. The
    main argument here is that Igbo traditional healing practices both the cultural and religious,
    have definable psychotherapeutic values; hence, the need to provide some theoretical and
    practical bases for recognition and adaptation of these practices into general and specific forms
    of psychotherapy.
    The research adopted a qualitative approach based on key informant interview (KII) of
    four purposively selected native doctors, four spiritual kings and four clergy men: two Catholic
    priests and two Protestant pastors from a purposively selected local government area in Anambra
    State, Idemili North, in the Southeast Nigeria. Intensive structured interview method, where seven
    specific questions were used to elicit information as concerned both the spiritual and traditional
    ‘psychotherapeutic practices of the Igbo people’ was adopted. The information gathered were
    thematically analyzed based on the information of the participants, principles of Gestalt
    psychology and macro ethical categorizations, and the general Igbo philosophy and world-view,
    especially as express in idioms, names and proverbs; and in comparison to euro-western views of
    psychotherapy.
    The results revealed that ‘psychotherapy’ had been in existence in Igbo cultural traditions
    for a very long time; having diagnosis (includes listening, questioning, examinations,
    consultations, divination) and interventions (involves sacrifices and ikpu alu, among others) as its
    major procedural parts. It also revealed the Igbo Concept and Sources of Psychopathology, and
    Some Qualities that are Common to Most Igbo ‘Psychotherapists’. It also revealed that the most
    popular technique in use is the ‘Umunna’-centered technique. Cultural aptness, acceptability,
    affordability, availability, effectiveness, low cost, inclusivity, wholesome restoration, zero percent
    chance of relapse and adoptability were found as some major advantages of Umunna
    ‘psychotherapy’. It was also observed to provide high levels of psychological, spiritual and social
    supports for the clients, and these in turn, lead to high restoration of eudemonia within a
    calculated period, both of the client and his/her umunna. Though simple and unique, it covers a
    wide range of psychotherapeuticism. However, the issue of confidentiality is of no interest to the
    Umunna psychotherapy.
    Based on the values found, the study recommends Umunna ‘psychotherapy’ to all
    psychotherapists, both as a type and a technique, and both within and outside the Igbo cultural
    regions.

     

    Author:

    Innocent U.O. Ejiofo,

    Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    Email: udobuchinno@yahoo.com

     

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    Psychotherapy And Traditional Healing

    Psychotherapy And Traditional Healing

    Abstract

    Multicultural advocates within professional psychology routinely call for “culturally
    competent” counseling interventions. Such advocates frequently cite and celebrate
    traditional healing practices as an important resource for developing novel integrative forms
    of psychotherapy that are distinctively tailored for diverse populations. Despite this interest,
    substantive descriptions of specific forms of traditional healing vis-à-vis psychotherapy have
    appeared infrequently in the psychology literature. This article explores the prospects for
    therapeutic integration between traditional healing and contemporary psychotherapy. There
    is a growing trend to seek alternative, complementary and traditional healing not only as a
    reaction to Western biomedicine but also to the mindset of ‘‘talking heads’’ in
    psychotherapy. Traditional healing aims to restore harmony and balance within the
    individual through a symbiosis of the body, mind and spirit. Through this process traditional
    healing offers a holistic conceptualization of wellness and wellbeing, both within the
    individual, and between the individual and his or her environment. Comparative studies on
    alternative healing practices indicate that many patients/clients often see a mental health
    professional and a traditional healer concurrently. This paper considers the use of
    traditional healing alongside Western counselling psychology as a process of dual
    interventions for clients who engage traditional healing practices alongside psychotherapy.

    Authors:

    Francis Bala Aku Akwash

    akwash03@yahoo.com

     

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    Psychotherapy in a Hospital

    Psychotherapy in a Hospital

    Abstract

    This paper examines the nature of Psychotherapy, determining its role in the hospital
    settings, and presents the case of the role of counseling intervention among discordant
    couples in NAUTH prep demonstration project. Four couples, who tested positive to HIV
    due to pre-wedding investigation (three females, one male,) and two others, a male and a
    female who tested positive following community HIV awareness, were followed for three
    months: March – June 2016. The objective was to access the behavioural changes of these
    clients in the process of enrolment to Prep. These clients were interviewed on four issues:
    their concerns about positive status, feeling of guilt and stigma, suicidal thoughts and what
    helped them to resolve their worries. One of the males was concerned about his health, three
    of the females were concerned about their marriages, and one male had no worry. All of
    them expressed feeling bad because of the stigmatization associated with the virus. Three of
    them had suicidal thoughts, but were reassured of hope after counseling. All said counseling
    helped them resolve their worries. Counseling /psychotherapy have been identified as sine
    qua non for patients on HAART to achieve effective viral suppression and act as immune
    boaster for patients on Positive Living.

    Author: Okpaleke Uche Victoria

    Department of Psychology

    Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus,

    ucheokpaleke1@yahoo.com 08136006928

     

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    Psychotherapy Training in Nigeria

    Psychotherapy Training in Nigeria

    The scarcity of properly trained psychotherapists in Nigeria, on the one hand, and the increasing incidence of emotional problems resulting from poverty and underdevelopment, child abuse and neglect, trauma resulting from different forms of crime and abuse of human dignity, insecurity problems like terrorism, insurgency, kidnapping and hijacking, increasing stress-provoking lifestyles, tribal and national wars and conflicts, westernization and globalisation, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic, different forms of cancer, and all sorts of abuse of human dignity on the other hand, call for urgent need for establishment of institutions for formal psychotherapy training in Nigeria. This paper highlights not only the above lacuna but also describes the important aspects of psychotherapy training in the Western world. It went further to describe current efforts being made in Nigeria to establish a world-class tertiary institution, the School of Psychotherapy and Health Sciences (SPHS), which takes it lead from modern psychotherapy training programmes in Austria.

     

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    Speech and Language Therapy Publications: Are They Adequate?

    Speech and Language Therapy Publications: Are They Adequate?

    Abstract

    Scientific publications in the area of speech and language therapy are meant to communicate
    to the scientific and practice community and policy-makers new developments (in theories,
    research and practice). Where there is a dearth of publication, teaching, research, and policy
    development in the field of study suffer. The aim of this paper is to find out whether
    publications in the area of speech and language therapy are adequate. A computer-aided
    electronic search was made using Ebscohost database. Scientific articles published within
    2011 and 2016 in the area of speech and language therapy were sought in three
    representative developed as well as three developing countries. Results show that
    publications in the area of speech and language therapy are not adequate. It is therefore
    recommended that speech and language therapists should endeavour to not only practice but
    also spare time for publications of their experiences for proper teaching, research and policy
    making.

    Author: Bridget Ngozi Madu

    Department of English, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University,

    Igbariam Campus, Nigeria

    Email: madubridget@gmail.com

     

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    Speech and Language Therapy Techniques Reported from Developing and Developed Countries

    Speech and Language Therapy Techniques Reported from Developing and Developed Countries

     

    Abstract
    Speech and language therapy publications are meant to communicate to the scientific and
    practice community as well as policy-makers new developments (in theories, research and
    practice). The aim of this paper is to find out the speech and language therapy techniques
    used in the developed and developing worlds. The information will throw light on the kinds of
    techniques used and advice on future development in the area. A computer-aided electronic
    search was made using Ebscohost database. Scientific articles published within 2011 and
    2016 in the area of speech and language therapy were sought in three representative
    developed as well as three developing countries. Results show that from the publications
    from the developing countries, it is apparent that those dealing with the speech and language
    problems are more occupied with issues of assessment than with therapy. In the developed
    countries, they are concerned with therapy techniques that will suit their present realities
    (and not just assessment alone). It is therefore recommended that those dealing with speech
    and language problems in the developing countries should be properly trained in the art of
    speech-language therapy.

     

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    The Application of Psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces

    The Application of Psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces

    Abstract

    The military personnel whose duty is to undertake operational duties are often exposed to trauma and stress; and some develop psychological distress as a result. The burden of mental health distress related to military occupational life is substantial as some military personnel and families flourish while others are not able to cope. Overtime, deployed military personnel and families become psychologically dysfunctional as a result of trauma and acute stress syndrome which result to post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and emotional burn-out. Although, little attempt has been made to assess and meet the mental health needs of the military community holistically. This negligence is costly considering that the psychological health of the military family has been found to be directly related to the readiness, well-being and retention of service members. More so, the impact of negative attachment reactions on the cognitive development of children as a result of separations related to military deployment and postings have been observed. But at the moment, the government and NGO’s have focused mainly on the physical welfare needs of the wounded military personnel only, while the mental wellbeing of their families who are victims of counter-insurgency operations have been overlooked. The study therefore examined the application of psychotherapy in the Nigerian Armed Forces. The researchers also discussed common psychotherapeutic techniques relevant to the treatment of military personnel and families with the need to adopt a preventive approach to mental health promotion.

    Authors: Philemon A. Agashua, Jonathan I. Ugese, Funke T. Olofin

    Department of Psychology Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna

    Email: philagash@gmail.com Mobile number: +23408057972305

     

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    The Efficacy of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in the Management of Stress in Military Personnel

    The Efficacy of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in the Management of Stress in Military Personnel

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    This study examines the efficacy (effectiveness) of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy
    (REBT) in the management of stress in military personnel. Forty Five (45) out of Sixty (60)
    military personnel drawn from Army, Navy, and Air Force who obtained high scores on SCL-
    90 and MSI were randomly placed into experimental, placebo, and control groups consisting
    of 15 participants each. The pretreatment scores of the three groups were taken. The
    experimental group received 10 REBT sessions, the placebo group had 10 sessions but only
    discussed professionalization in the Nigerian military. The control group received no
    treatment. The results showed that pos-treatment scores of the experimental group were
    lower than their pretreatment scores as that of the placebo and control groups. Using
    ANOVA to determine the significant difference in the three groups, it was found that the
    experimental group showed significant differences in all 11 measures. The results were
    discussed in terms of the efficacy of REBT in the management of stress in military personnel.

    Author: Damian D. Osa-Afiana

    Department of Psychology

    Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna

     

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